Mighty knowledge

Journal article

Beddor, Bob and Goldstein, Simon. (2021). Mighty knowledge. Journal of Philosophy. 118(5), pp. 229-269. https://doi.org/10.5840/jphil2021118518
AuthorsBeddor, Bob and Goldstein, Simon

We often claim to know what might be—or probably is—the case. Modal knowledge along these lines creates a puzzle for information-sensitive semantics for epistemic modals. This paper develops a solution. We start with the idea that knowledge requires safe belief: a belief amounts to knowledge only if it could not easily have been held falsely. We then develop an interpretation of the modal operator in safety (could have) that allows it to non-trivially embed information-sensitive contents. The resulting theory avoids various paradoxes that arise from other accounts of modal knowledge. It also delivers plausible predictions about modal Gettier cases.

JournalJournal of Philosophy
Journal citation118 (5), pp. 229-269
PublisherJournal of Philosophy, Inc.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.5840/jphil2021118518
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range229-269
Author's accepted manuscript
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Publisher's version
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
PrintMay 2021
Publication process dates
Deposited19 Oct 2021
Permalink -


Download files

Author's accepted manuscript
License: All rights reserved
File access level: Open

Restricted files

Publisher's version

  • 55
    total views
  • 19
    total downloads
  • 3
    views this month
  • 4
    downloads this month
These values are for the period from 19th October 2020, when this repository was created.

Export as

Related outputs

Attitude verbs’ local context
Blumberg, Kyle and Goldstein, Simon. (2023). Attitude verbs’ local context. Linguistics and Philosophy. 46(3), pp. 483-507. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-022-09373-y
Fragile knowledge
Goldstein, Simon. (2022). Fragile knowledge. Mind. 131(522), pp. 487-515. https://doi.org/10.1093/mind/fzab040
Goldstein, Simon and Kirk-Giannini, Cameron Domenico. (2022). Contextology. Philosophical Studies. 179(11), pp. 3187-3209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-022-01820-7
Sly Pete in dynamic semantics
Goldstein, Simon David. (2022). Sly Pete in dynamic semantics. Journal of Philosophical Logic. 51(5), pp. 1103-1117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10992-022-09660-w
Knowledge from multiple experiences
Goldstein, Simon and Hawthorne, John. (2022). Knowledge from multiple experiences. Philosophical Studies. 179(4), pp. 1341-1372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-021-01710-4
Counterfactual contamination
Goldstein, Simon and Hawthorne, John. (2022). Counterfactual contamination. Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 100(2), pp. 262-278. https://doi.org/10.1080/00048402.2021.1886129
Probability for epistemic modalities
Goldstein, Simon and Santorio, Paolo. (2021). Probability for epistemic modalities. Philosophers' Imprint. 21(33), pp. 1-37.
The normality of error
Carter, Sam and Goldstein, Simon. (2021). The normality of error. Philosophical Studies. 178, pp. 2509-2533. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-020-01560-6
Losing confidence in luminosity
Goldstein, Simon and Waxman, Daniel. (2021). Losing confidence in luminosity. Noûs. 55(4), pp. 962-991. https://doi.org/10.1111/nous.12348
Epistemic modal credence
Goldstein, Simon. (2021). Epistemic modal credence. Philosophers' Imprint. 21(26), pp. 1-24.
The counterfactual direct argument
Goldstein, Simon. (2020). The counterfactual direct argument. Linguistics and Philosophy. 43(2), pp. 193-232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-019-09272-9
Free choice impossibilty results
Goldstein, Simon. (2020). Free choice impossibilty results. Journal of Philosophical Logic. 49(2), pp. 249-282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10992-019-09517-9
Conditional heresies
Cariani, Fabrizio and Goldstein, Simon. (2020). Conditional heresies. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 101(2), pp. 251-282. https://doi.org/10.1111/phpr.12565
A theory of conditional assertion
Goldstein, Simon. (2019). A theory of conditional assertion. Journal of Philosophy. 116(6), pp. 293-318. https://doi.org/10.5840/jphil2019116620
Generalized update semantics
Goldstein, Simon. (2019). Generalized update semantics. Mind: A Quarterly review of philosophy. 128(511), pp. 795-835. https://doi.org/10.1093/mind/fzy076
Free choice and homogeneity
Goldstein, Simon. (2019). Free choice and homogeneity. Semantics and Pragmatics. 12, pp. 1-47. https://doi.org/10.3765/sp.12.23
Triviality results for probabilistic modals
Goldstein, Simon. (2019). Triviality results for probabilistic modals. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 99(1), pp. 188-222. https://doi.org/10.1111/phpr.12477
A stronger doctrine of double effect
Bronner, Ben and Goldstein, Simon. (2018). A stronger doctrine of double effect. Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 96(4), pp. 793 - 805. https://doi.org/10.1080/00048402.2017.1400572
Believing epistemic contradictions
Beddor, Bob and Goldstein, Simon. (2018). Believing epistemic contradictions. The Review of Symbolic Logic. 11(1), pp. 87-114. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755020316000514
A preface paradox for intention
Goldstein, Simon. (2016). A preface paradox for intention. Philosophers' Imprint. 16(14), pp. 1-20.