Methods of monitoring internal and external loads and their relationships with physical qualities, injury, or illness in adolescent athletes : A systematic review and best-evidence synthesis

Journal article


Dudley, Charles, Johnston, Rich, Jones, Ben, Till, Kevin, Westbrook, Harrison and Weakley, Jonathon. (2023). Methods of monitoring internal and external loads and their relationships with physical qualities, injury, or illness in adolescent athletes : A systematic review and best-evidence synthesis. Sports Medicine. 53, pp. 1559-1593. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-023-01844-x
AuthorsDudley, Charles, Johnston, Rich, Jones, Ben, Till, Kevin, Westbrook, Harrison and Weakley, Jonathon
Abstract

Background
With the increasing professionalisation of youth sports, training load monitoring is increasingly common in adolescent athletes. However, the research examining the relationship between training load and changes in physical qualities, injury, or illness in adolescent athletes is yet to be synthesised in a systematic review.

Objective
The aim of this review was to systematically examine the research assessing internal and external methods of monitoring training load and physical qualities, injury, or illness in adolescent athletes.

Methods
Systematic searches of SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and SCOPUS were undertaken from the earliest possible records to March 2022. Search terms included synonyms relevant to adolescents, athletes, physical qualities, injury, or illness. To be eligible for inclusion, articles were required to (1) be original research articles; (2) be published in a peer-reviewed journal; (3) include participants aged between 10 and 19 years and participating in competitive sport; (4) report a statistical relationship between a measure of internal and/or external load and physical qualities, injury or illness. Articles were screened and assessed for methodological quality. A best-evidence synthesis was conducted to identify trends in the relationships reported.

Results
The electronic search yielded 4125 articles. Following screening and a review of references, 59 articles were included. The most commonly reported load monitoring tools were session ratings of perceived exertion (n = 29) and training duration (n = 22). Results of the best-evidence synthesis identified moderate evidence of positive relationships between resistance training volume load and improvement in strength, and between throw count and injury. However, evidence for other relationships between training load and change in physical qualities, injury, or illness were limited or inconsistent.

Conclusions
Practitioners should consider monitoring resistance training volume load for strength training. Additionally, where appropriate, monitoring throw counts may be useful in identifying injury risk. However, given the lack of clear relationships between singular measures of training load with physical qualities, injury, or illness, researchers should consider multivariate methods of analysing training load, as well as factors that may mediate the load–response relationship, such as maturation.

Keywordstraining load; internal load; external load; adolescent athletes; injury; monitoring; methods; systematic review
Year2023
JournalSports Medicine
Journal citation53, pp. 1559-1593
PublisherSpringer
ISSN0112-1642
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-023-01844-x
PubMed ID37071283
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85152929329
PubMed Central IDPMC10356657
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range1559-1593
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online18 Apr 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted19 Mar 2023
Deposited18 Sep 2023
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Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim, Naughton, Geraldine, Cole, Michael H., Johnston, Richard and Dawson, Brian. (2019). The influence of contextual factors on running performance in female Australian football match-play. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(9), pp. 2488 - 2495. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002142
Structure of force variability during squats performed with an inertial flywheel device under stable versus unstable surfaces
Moras, Gerard, Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo, Fernández-Valdés, Bruno, Rosas-Casals, Marti, Weakley, Jonathon, Jones, Ben and Sampaio, Jaime. (2019). Structure of force variability during squats performed with an inertial flywheel device under stable versus unstable surfaces. Human Movement Science. 66, pp. 497 - 503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.05.022
Assessment of the load-velocity profile in the free-weight prone bench pull exercise through different velocity variables and regression models
García-Ramos, Amador, Ulloa-Díaz, David, Barboza-González, Paola, Rodríguez-Perea, Ángela, Martínez-García, Darío, Quidel-Catrilelbún, Mauricio, Guede-Rojas, Francisco, Cuevas-Aburto, Jesualdo, Janicijevic, Danica and Weakley, Jonathon. (2019). Assessment of the load-velocity profile in the free-weight prone bench pull exercise through different velocity variables and regression models. PLoS ONE. 14(2), pp. 1 - 12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212085
Criterion validity of force and power outputs for a commonly used flywheel resistance training device and bluetooth app
Weakley, Jonathon, Fernández-Valdés, Bruno, Thomas, Liam, Ramirez-Lopez, Carlos and Jones, Ben. (2019). Criterion validity of force and power outputs for a commonly used flywheel resistance training device and bluetooth app. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(5), pp. 1180 - 1184. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003132
The effects of augmented feedback on sprint, jump, and strength adaptations in rugby union players after a 4-week training program
Weakley, Jonathon, Till, Kevin, Sampson, John Andrew, Banyard, Harry, Leduc, Cédric, Wilson, Kyle M., Roe, Gregory A. B. and Jones, Ben. (2019). The effects of augmented feedback on sprint, jump, and strength adaptations in rugby union players after a 4-week training program. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(9), pp. 1205 - 1211. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0523
Reliability and validity of different methods of estimating the one-repetition maximum during the free-weight prone bench pull exercise
García-Ramos, Amador, Barboza-González, Paola, Ulloa-Díaz, David, Rodríguez-Perea, Ángela, Martínez-García, Darío, Guede-Rojas, Francisco, Hinojosa-Riveros, Hans, Chirosa-Ríos, Luis Javier, Cuevas-Aburto, Jesualdo, Janicijevic, Danica and Weakley, Jonathon. (2019). Reliability and validity of different methods of estimating the one-repetition maximum during the free-weight prone bench pull exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences. 37(19), pp. 2205 - 2212. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1626071
Influence of physical characteristics and match outcome on technical errors during rugby league match play
Johnston, Richard. (2019). Influence of physical characteristics and match outcome on technical errors during rugby league match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(8), pp. 1043 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0354
The peak duration-specific locomotor demands and concurrent collision frequencies of European Super League rugby
Weaving, Dan, Sawczuk, Thomas, Williams, Sean, Scott, Tannath, Till, Kevin, Beggs, Clive, Johnston, Rich D. and Jones, Ben. (2019). The peak duration-specific locomotor demands and concurrent collision frequencies of European Super League rugby. Journal of Sports Sciences. 37(3), pp. 322-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1500425
Technical skill training framework and skill load measurements for the rugby union tackle
Hendricks, Sharief, Till, Kevin, Oliver, Jon L., Johnston, Rich D., Attwood, Matthew, Brown, James, Drake, David, MacLeod, Simon, Mellalieu, Stephen D., Treu, Paul and Jones, Ben. (2018). Technical skill training framework and skill load measurements for the rugby union tackle. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 40(5), pp. 44-59. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000400
Organized chaos in late specialization team sports: Weekly training loads of elite adolescent rugby union players
Phibbs, Padraic J., Jones, Ben, Roe, Gregory A. B., Read, Dale B., Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Weakley, Jonathon, Rock, Andrew and Till, Kevin. (2018). Organized chaos in late specialization team sports: Weekly training loads of elite adolescent rugby union players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(5), pp. 1316 - 1323. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001965
The physical characteristics of specific phases of play during rugby union match play
Read, Dale B., Jones, Ben, Williams, Sean, Phibbs, Padraic J., Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Roe, Gregory A. B., Weakley, Jonathon, Rock, Andrew and Till, Kevin. (2018). The physical characteristics of specific phases of play during rugby union match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(10), pp. 1331 - 1336. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0625
Understanding the relationship between coach and athlete perceptions of training intensity in youth sport
Scantlebury, Sean, Till, Kevin, Sawczuk, Tom, Weakley, Jonathon and Jones, Ben. (2018). Understanding the relationship between coach and athlete perceptions of training intensity in youth sport. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(11), pp. 3239 - 3245. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002204
The organised chaos of English adolescent rugby union: Influence of weekly match frequency on the variability of match and training loads
Phibbs, Padraic J., Jones, Ben, Roe, Gregory A. B., Read, Dale B., Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Weakley, Jonathon, Rock, Andrew and Till, Kevin. (2018). The organised chaos of English adolescent rugby union: Influence of weekly match frequency on the variability of match and training loads. European Journal of Sport Science. 18(3), pp. 341 - 348. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1418026
Between-day reliability and usefulness of a fitness testing battery in youth sport athletes: Reference data for practitioners
Sawczuk, Thomas, Jones, Ben, Scantlebury, Sean, Weakley, Jonathon, Read, Dale B., Costello, Nessan, Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Stokes, Keith A. and Till, Kevin. (2018). Between-day reliability and usefulness of a fitness testing battery in youth sport athletes: Reference data for practitioners. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 22(1), pp. 11 - 18. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2017.1360304
Bigger, stronger, faster, fitter: The differences in physical qualities of school and academy rugby union players
Jones, Ben, Weaving, Dan, Tee, Jason, Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Weakley, Jonathon, Phibbs, Padraic J., Read, Dale B., Roe, Gregory A. B., Hendricks, Sharief and Till, Kevin. (2018). Bigger, stronger, faster, fitter: The differences in physical qualities of school and academy rugby union players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 36(21), pp. 2399 - 2404. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1458589
Applied sport science of Australian football: A systematic review
Johnston, Richard, Black, Georgia M., Harrison, Peter W., Murray, Nick B. and Austin, Damien J.. (2018). Applied sport science of Australian football: A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 48(7), pp. 1673 - 1694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0919-z
Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season : The relationship with strength and power qualities
Speranza, Michael J. A., Gabbett, Tim J., Greene, David A., Johnston, Rich D. and Sheppard, Jeremy M.. (2017). Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season : The relationship with strength and power qualities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(12), pp. 3311-3318. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001540
Validity of daily and weekly self-reported training load measures in adolescent athletes
Phibbs, Padraic J., Roe, Gregory, Jones, Ben, Read, Dale B., Weakley, Jonathon, Darrall-Jones, Joshua and Till, Kevin. (2017). Validity of daily and weekly self-reported training load measures in adolescent athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(4), pp. 1121 - 1126. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001708
Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play
Hulin, Billy T., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Rich D. and Jenkins, David G.. (2017). Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(7), pp. 638-642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.006
Influence of physical maturity status on sprinting speed among youth soccer players
McCunn, Robert, Weston, Matthew, Hill, John KA, Johnston, Richard and Gibson, Neil V.. (2017). Influence of physical maturity status on sprinting speed among youth soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(7), pp. 1795 - 1801. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001654
Movement and physical demands of school and university rugby union match-play in England
Read, Dale, Weaving, Daniel, Phibbs, Padraic, Darrall-Jones, Joshua, Roe, Gregory, Weakley, Jonathon, Hendricks, Sharief, Till, Kevin and Jones, Ben. (2017). Movement and physical demands of school and university rugby union match-play in England. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2(1), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2016-000147
The effect of physical contact on changes in fatigue markers following rugby union field-based training
Roe, Gregory, Darrall-Jones, Joshua, Till, Kevin, Phibbs, Padraic, Read, Dale, Weakley, Jonathon, Rock, Andrew and Jones, Ben. (2017). The effect of physical contact on changes in fatigue markers following rugby union field-based training. European Journal of Sport Science. 17(6), pp. 647 - 655. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1287960
To jump or cycle? Monitoring neuromuscular function in rugby union players
Roe, Gregory, Darrall-Jones, Joshua, Till, Kevin, Phibbs, Padraic J., Read, Dale, Weakley, Jonathon and Jones, Ben. (2017). To jump or cycle? Monitoring neuromuscular function in rugby union players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(5), pp. 690 - 696. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0273
Effect of different repeated-high-intensity-effort bouts on subsequent running, skill performance, and neuromuscular function
Johnston, Rich D., Gabbett, Tim J., Jenkins, David G. and Speranza, Michael J.. (2016). Effect of different repeated-high-intensity-effort bouts on subsequent running, skill performance, and neuromuscular function. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 11(3), pp. 311-318. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0243
The effect of body mass on the 30-15 intermittent fitness test in rugby union players
Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Roe, Gregory A. B., Carney, Shane, Clayton, Ryan, Phibbs, Padraic J., Read, Dale B., Weakley, Jonathon, Till, Kevin and Jones, Ben. (2016). The effect of body mass on the 30-15 intermittent fitness test in rugby union players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 11(3), pp. 400 - 403. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0231
Between-days reliability and sensitivity of common fatigue measures in rugby players
Roe, Gregory A. B., Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Till, Kevin, Phibbs, Padraic J., Read, Dale B., Weakley, Jonathon and Jones, Ben. (2016). Between-days reliability and sensitivity of common fatigue measures in rugby players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 11(5), pp. 581 - 586. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0413
Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout?
Johnston, Rich D., Gabbett, Tim J., Walker, Shane, Walker, Ben and Jenkins, David G.. (2015). Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(3), pp. 816-821. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000679
The influence of physical fitness and playing standard on pacing strategies during a team-sport tournament
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim and Jenkins, David. (2015). The influence of physical fitness and playing standard on pacing strategies during a team-sport tournament. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10(8), pp. 1001 - 1008. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0005
Fatigue and pacing in rugby league players
Johnston, Richard. (2015). Fatigue and pacing in rugby league players [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbe35b0b9e
Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim and Jenkins, David. (2015). Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition. Sports Medicine - Open. 1(18), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0015-y
Relationship between a standardized tackling proficiency test and match-play tackle performance in semiprofessional Rugby League players
Speranza, Michael, Gabbett, Tim, Johnston, Rich and Sheppard, Jeremy. (2015). Relationship between a standardized tackling proficiency test and match-play tackle performance in semiprofessional Rugby League players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10(6), pp. 754 - 760. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0044
Muscular strength and power correlates of tackling ability in semiprofessional Rugby League players
Speranza, Michael, Gabbett, Tim, Johnston, Richard and Sheppard, Jeremy. (2015). Muscular strength and power correlates of tackling ability in semiprofessional Rugby League players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(8), pp. 2071 - 2078. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000897
Applied sport science of Rugby League
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim J. and Jenkins, David. (2014). Applied sport science of Rugby League. Sports Medicine: reviews of applied medicine and science in sport and exercise. 44(8), pp. 1087 - 1100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0190-x
Influence of Physical Contact on Pacing Strategies During Game-Based Activities
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim, Seibold, Anthony and Jenkins, David. (2014). Influence of Physical Contact on Pacing Strategies During Game-Based Activities. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(5), pp. 811 - 816. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2013-0424
Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition
Johnston, Rich D., Gibson, Neil V., Twist, Craig, Gabbett, Tim. J., MacNay, Sophie A. and MacFarlane, Niall G.. (2013). Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 27(3), pp. 643-654. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825bb469
Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players
Gibson, Neil V., Currie, J., Johnston, Richard and Hill, J.. (2013). Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 53(1), pp. 9 - 16.
Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players
Johnston, Richard, Gabbett, Timothy and Jenkins, David. (2013). Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.10.009