Validity and reliability of methods to assess movement deficiencies following concussion : A COSMIN systematic review

Journal article


Dunne, Laura A. M., Cole, Michael H., Cormack, Stuart J., Howell, David R. and Johnston, Rich D.. (2023). Validity and reliability of methods to assess movement deficiencies following concussion : A COSMIN systematic review. Sports Medicine - Open. 9(1), p. Article 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-023-00625-0
AuthorsDunne, Laura A. M., Cole, Michael H., Cormack, Stuart J., Howell, David R. and Johnston, Rich D.
Abstract

Background
There is an increased risk of subsequent concussion and musculoskeletal injury upon return to play following a sports-related concussion. Whilst there are numerous assessments available for clinicians for diagnosis and during return to play following concussion, many may lack the ability to detect these subclinical changes in function. Currently, there is no consensus or collated sources on the reliability, validity and feasibility of these assessments, which makes it difficult for clinicians and practitioners to select the most appropriate assessment for their needs.

Objectives
This systematic review aims to (1) consolidate the reliability and validity of motor function assessments across the time course of concussion management and (2) summarise their feasibility for clinicians and other end-users.

Methods
A systematic search of five databases was conducted. Eligible studies were: (1) original research; (2) full-text English language; (3) peer-reviewed with level III evidence or higher; (4) assessed the validity of lower-limb motor assessments used to diagnose or determine readiness for athletes or military personnel who had sustained a concussion or; (5) assessed the test-retest reliability of lower-limb motor assessments used for concussion management amongst healthy athletes. Acceptable lower-limb motor assessments were dichotomised into instrumented and non-instrumented and then classified into static (stable around a fixed point), dynamic (movement around a fixed point), gait, and other categories. Each study was assessed using the COSMIN checklist to establish methodological and measurement quality.

Results
A total of 1270 records were identified, with 637 duplicates removed. Titles and abstracts of 633 records were analysed, with 158 being retained for full-text review. A total of 67 records were included in this review; 37 records assessed reliability, and 35 records assessed the validity of lower-limb motor assessments. There were 42 different assessments included in the review, with 43% being non-instrumented, subjective assessments. Consistent evidence supported the use of instrumented assessments over non-instrumented, with gait-based assessments demonstrating sufficient reliability and validity compared to static or dynamic assessments.

Conclusion
These findings suggest that instrumented, gait-based assessments should be prioritised over static or dynamic balance assessments. The use of laboratory equipment (i.e. 3D motion capture, pressure sensitive walkways) on average exhibited sufficient reliability and validity, yet demonstrate poor feasibility. Further high-quality studies evaluating the reliability and validity of more readily available devices (i.e. inertial measurement units) are needed to fill the gap in current concussion management protocols. Practitioners can use this resource to understand the accuracy and precision of the assessments they have at their disposal to make informed decisions regarding the management of concussion.

Trail Registration: This systematic review was registered on PROSPERO (reg no. CRD42021256298).

Keywordssports-related concussion; motor; assessment; validity; reliability
Year2023
JournalSports Medicine - Open
Journal citation9 (1), p. Article 76
PublisherSpringer
ISSN2198-9761
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-023-00625-0
PubMed ID37578611
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85168354836
PubMed Central IDPMC10425315
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range1-25
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online14 Aug 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted02 Aug 2023
Deposited08 Oct 2023
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Hubble, Ryan P., Silburn, Peter A., Naughton, Geraldine and Cole, Michael H.. (2019). Trunk exercises improve balance in Parkinson disease: A phase II randomized controlled trial. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy. 43(2), pp. 96 - 105. https://doi.org/10.1097/NPT.0000000000000258
Automatic detection of one-on-one tackles and ruck events using microtechnology in rugby union
Chambers, Ryan, Gabbett, Tim, Gupta, Ritu, Josman, Casey, Bown, Rhodri, Stridgeon, Paul and Cole, Michael H.. (2019). Automatic detection of one-on-one tackles and ruck events using microtechnology in rugby union. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 22(7), pp. 827 - 832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.01.001
Validity of a microsensor-based algorithm for detecting scrum events in rugby union
Chambers, Ryan M., Gabbett, Tim J. and Cole, Michael H.. (2019). Validity of a microsensor-based algorithm for detecting scrum events in rugby union. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(2), pp. 176 - 182. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0222
Associations between gait-related falls and gait adaptations when stepping onto a curb: A prospective falls study
Van Andel, Steven, Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Associations between gait-related falls and gait adaptations when stepping onto a curb: A prospective falls study. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 27(3), pp. 309 - 315. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2018-0124
Using microtechnology to quantify torso angle during match-play in field hockey
Warman, Geoffrey Ernest, Cole, Michael H., Chalkley, Daniel, Johnston, richard and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Using microtechnology to quantify torso angle during match-play in field hockey. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(10), pp. 2648 - 2654. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003238
Principles of the guidance of exploration for orientation and specification of action
van Andel, Steven, McGuckian, Thomas B., Chalkley, Daniel, Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Principles of the guidance of exploration for orientation and specification of action. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 13, p. Article 231. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00231
Visual exploration when surrounded by affordances : Frequency of head movements is predictive of response speed
McGuckian, Thomas B., Cole, Michael H., Chalkley, Daniel, Jordet, Geir and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Visual exploration when surrounded by affordances : Frequency of head movements is predictive of response speed. Ecological Psychology. 31(1), pp. 30-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/10407413.2018.1495548
The influence of contextual factors on running performance in female Australian football match-play
Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim, Naughton, Geraldine, Cole, Michael H., Johnston, Richard and Dawson, Brian. (2019). The influence of contextual factors on running performance in female Australian football match-play. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(9), pp. 2488 - 2495. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002142
The CuePed trial: How does environmental complexity impact cue effectiveness? A comparison of tonic and phasic visual cueing in simple and complex environments in a Parkinson’s disease population with freezing of gait
Marsh, Rodney, Cole, Michael H., Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N. W., Au, Tiffany R., Clewett, Sandra, O'Sullivan, John D. and Silburn, Peter A.. (2019). The CuePed trial: How does environmental complexity impact cue effectiveness? A comparison of tonic and phasic visual cueing in simple and complex environments in a Parkinson’s disease population with freezing of gait. Parkinson's Disease. 2019, pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2478980
A skill profile of the national women’s Australian football league (AFLW)
Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Rich D., Cole, Michael H., Naughton, Geraldine and Dawson, Brian. (2019). A skill profile of the national women’s Australian football league (AFLW). Science and Medicine in Football. 3(2), pp. 138-142. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2018.1489140
Alternate subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters to manage motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Conway, Zachary J., Silburn, Peter A., Thevathasan, Wesley, O'Maley, Karen, Naughton, Geraldine and Cole, Michael H.. (2019). Alternate subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters to manage motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Movement disorders clinical practice. 6(1), pp. 17 - 26. https://doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12681
Gait velocity and joint power generation after stroke: Contribution of strength and balance
Mentiplay, Benjamin F., Williams, Gavin, Tan, Dawn, Adair, Brooke, Yong-Hao, Pua, Bok, Chek Wai, Bower, Kelly J., Cole, Michael H., Ng, Yee Sien, Lim, Lek Syn and Clark, Ross A.. (2019). Gait velocity and joint power generation after stroke: Contribution of strength and balance. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 98(10), pp. 841 - 849. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001122
Influence of age and falls incidence on tau guidance of centre of pressure movement during gait initiation
Van Andel, Steven, Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Influence of age and falls incidence on tau guidance of centre of pressure movement during gait initiation. Gait & Posture. 70, pp. 104 - 108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.02.030
Influence of physical characteristics and match outcome on technical errors during rugby league match play
Johnston, Richard. (2019). Influence of physical characteristics and match outcome on technical errors during rugby league match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(8), pp. 1043 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0354
Lower-limb muscle function during sidestep cutting
Maniar, Nirav, Schache, Anthony G., Cole, Michael H. and Opar, David. (2019). Lower-limb muscle function during sidestep cutting. Journal of Biomechanics. 82, pp. 186 - 192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.10.021
The peak duration-specific locomotor demands and concurrent collision frequencies of European Super League rugby
Weaving, Dan, Sawczuk, Thomas, Williams, Sean, Scott, Tannath, Till, Kevin, Beggs, Clive, Johnston, Rich D. and Jones, Ben. (2019). The peak duration-specific locomotor demands and concurrent collision frequencies of European Super League rugby. Journal of Sports Sciences. 37(3), pp. 322-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1500425
Technical skill training framework and skill load measurements for the rugby union tackle
Hendricks, Sharief, Till, Kevin, Oliver, Jon L., Johnston, Rich D., Attwood, Matthew, Brown, James, Drake, David, MacLeod, Simon, Mellalieu, Stephen D., Treu, Paul and Jones, Ben. (2018). Technical skill training framework and skill load measurements for the rugby union tackle. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 40(5), pp. 44-59. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000400
Effects of training and competition load on neuromuscular recovery, testosterone, cortisol, and match performance during a season of professional football
Amber E. Rowell, Robert Aughey, W. G. Hopkins, Alizera Esmaeili, Brendan H. Lazarus and Stuart Cormack. (2018). Effects of training and competition load on neuromuscular recovery, testosterone, cortisol, and match performance during a season of professional football. Frontiers in Physiology. 9(668), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00668
A standardized small sided game can be used to monitor neuromuscular fatigue in professional A-league football players
Amber E. Rowell, Robert Aughey, Jo Clubb and Stuart Cormack. (2018). A standardized small sided game can be used to monitor neuromuscular fatigue in professional A-league football players. Frontiers in Physiology. 8(August), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01011
A multi-year injury epidemiology analysis of an elite national junior tennis program
Gescheit, Danielle, Cormack, Stuart, Duffield, Rob, Kovalchik, Stephanie, Wood, Tim O., Omizzolo, Melanie and Reid, Machar. (2018). A multi-year injury epidemiology analysis of an elite national junior tennis program. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 22(1), pp. 11-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.06.006
Trunk exercises improve gait symmetry in Parkinson disease: a blind phase ii randomised-controlled trial
Hubble, Ryan P., Naughton, Geraldine, Silburn, Peter A. and Cole, Michael H.. (2018). Trunk exercises improve gait symmetry in Parkinson disease: a blind phase ii randomised-controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 97(3), pp. 151 - 159. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000858
Balance control systems in Parkinson's disease and the impact of pedunculopontine area stimulation
Perera, Thushara, Tan, Joy L., Cole, Michael H., Yohanandan, Shivy A. C., Silberstein, Paul, Cook, Raymond, Peppard, Richard, Aziz, Tipu, Coyne, Terry, Brown, Peter, Silburn, Peter A. and Thevathasan, Wesley. (2018). Balance control systems in Parkinson's disease and the impact of pedunculopontine area stimulation. Brain. 141(10), pp. 3009 - 3022. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy216
The influence of physical qualities on activity profiles of female Australian Football match play
Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Richard D., Cole, Michael H., Naughton, Geraldine and Dawson, Brian. (2018). The influence of physical qualities on activity profiles of female Australian Football match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(4), pp. 524 - 529. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0723
The influence of rotations on match running performance in female Australian football midfielders
Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Richard D., Naughton, Geraldine, Cole, Michael H. and Dawson, Brian. (2018). The influence of rotations on match running performance in female Australian football midfielders. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(4), pp. 434 - 441. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0175
Gait characteristics and falls in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Creaby, Mark W. and Cole, Michael H.. (2018). Gait characteristics and falls in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. 57, pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.07.008
Don’t turn blind! The relationship between exploration before ball possession and on-ball performance in association football
McGuckian, Thomas B., Cole, Michael H., Jordet, Geir, Chalkley, Daniel and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2018). Don’t turn blind! The relationship between exploration before ball possession and on-ball performance in association football. Frontiers in Psychology. 9(Article 2520). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02520
Perceptual-motor regulation in locomotor pointing while approaching a curb
Van Andel, Steven, Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2018). Perceptual-motor regulation in locomotor pointing while approaching a curb. Gait & Posture. 60(February 2018), pp. 164 - 170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.12.006
Dynamic balance control during stair negotiation for older adults and people with Parkinson disease
Conway, Zachary, Blackmore, Tim, Silburn, Peter A. and Cole, Michael H.. (2018). Dynamic balance control during stair negotiation for older adults and people with Parkinson disease. Human Movement Science. 59, pp. 30 - 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2018.03.012
A systematic review of the technology-based assessment of visual perception and exploration behaviour in association football
McGuckian, Thomas B., Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2018). A systematic review of the technology-based assessment of visual perception and exploration behaviour in association football. Journal of Sports Sciences. 36(8), pp. 861-880. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1344780
No compromise of competition sleep compared with habitual sleep in elite Australian footballers
Lalor, Benita J., Halson, Shona L., Tran, Jacqueline, Kemp, Justin G. and Cormack, Stuart J.. (2018). No compromise of competition sleep compared with habitual sleep in elite Australian footballers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(1), pp. 29 - 36. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0776
Self-paced team-sport match simulation results in reductions in voluntary activation and modifications to biological, perceptual, and performance measures at halftime and for up to 96 hours postmatch
Tofari, Paul J., Kemp, Justin G. and Cormack, Stuart J.. (2018). Self-paced team-sport match simulation results in reductions in voluntary activation and modifications to biological, perceptual, and performance measures at halftime and for up to 96 hours postmatch. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(12), pp. 3552 - 3563. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001875
Wearable technology reveals gait compensations, unstable walking patterns and fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis
Psarakis, Michael, Greene, David A., Cole, Michael H., Lord, Stephen R., Hoang, Phu and Brodie, Matthew A. D.. (2018). Wearable technology reveals gait compensations, unstable walking patterns and fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis. Physiological Measurement. 39(7), pp. 1 - 13. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/aac0a3
Applied sport science of Australian football: A systematic review
Johnston, Richard, Black, Georgia M., Harrison, Peter W., Murray, Nick B. and Austin, Damien J.. (2018). Applied sport science of Australian football: A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 48(7), pp. 1673 - 1694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0919-z
Physical fitness and peak running periods during female Australian football match-play
Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Rich D., Cole, Michael H., Naughton, Geraldine and Dawson, Brian. (2018). Physical fitness and peak running periods during female Australian football match-play. Science and Medicine in Football. 2(3), pp. 246 - 251. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2018.1426103
Relationships between model estimates and actual match-performance indices in professional Australian footballers during an in-season macrocycle
Graham, Stuart R., Cormack, Stuart, Parfitt, Gaynor and Eston, Roger. (2018). Relationships between model estimates and actual match-performance indices in professional Australian footballers during an in-season macrocycle. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(3), pp. 339-346. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0026
Regulation of locomotor pointing across the lifespan: Investigating age-related influences on perceptual-motor coupling
van Andel, Steven, Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2018). Regulation of locomotor pointing across the lifespan: Investigating age-related influences on perceptual-motor coupling. PLoS ONE. 13(7), pp. 1 - 16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200244
Identification of sensitive measures of recovery after external load from football match play
Rowell, Amber E., Aughey, Robert, Hopkins, W. G., Stewart, Andrew M. and Cormack, Stuart. (2017). Identification of sensitive measures of recovery after external load from football match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(7), pp. 969 - 976. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0522
Evidence of compensatory joint kinetics during stair ascent and descent in Parkinson's disease
Conway, Zachary J., Silburn, Peter A., Blackmore, Tim and Cole, Michael H.. (2017). Evidence of compensatory joint kinetics during stair ascent and descent in Parkinson's disease. Gait & Posture. 52, pp. 33-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.11.017
Imposed faster and slower walking speeds influence gait stability differently in Parkinson fallers
Cole, Michael H., Sweeney, Matthew, Conway, Zachary, Blackmore, Tim and Silburn, Peter A.. (2017). Imposed faster and slower walking speeds influence gait stability differently in Parkinson fallers. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 98(4), pp. 639-648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2016.11.008
When is a sprint a sprint? A review of the analysis of team-sport athlete activity profile
Sweeting, Alice J., Cormack, Stuart J., Morgan, Stuart and Aughey, Robert J.. (2017). When is a sprint a sprint? A review of the analysis of team-sport athlete activity profile. Frontiers in Physiology. 8(8), pp. 1 - 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00432
Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season : The relationship with strength and power qualities
Speranza, Michael J. A., Gabbett, Tim J., Greene, David A., Johnston, Rich D. and Sheppard, Jeremy M.. (2017). Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season : The relationship with strength and power qualities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(12), pp. 3311-3318. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001540
Self-reported wellness profiles of professional Australian Football players during the competition phase of the season
Gallo, Tania F., Cormack, Stuart J., Gabbett, Tim J. and Lorenzen, Christian H.. (2017). Self-reported wellness profiles of professional Australian Football players during the competition phase of the season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(2), pp. 495 - 502. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001515
Automatic detection of pitching and throwing events in baseball with inertial measurement sensors
Murray, Nick B., Black, Georgia M., Whiteley, Rod J., Gahan, Peter, Cole, Michael H., Utting, Andy and Gabbett, Tim J.. (2017). Automatic detection of pitching and throwing events in baseball with inertial measurement sensors. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(4), pp. 533-537. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0212
Injury epidemiology of tennis players at the 2011-2016 Australian open grand slam
Gescheit, Danielle, Cormack, Stuart, Duffield, Rob, Kovalchik, Stephanie, Wood, Tim O., Omizzolo, Melanie and Reid, Machar. (2017). Injury epidemiology of tennis players at the 2011-2016 Australian open grand slam. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51(17), pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097283
Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play
Hulin, Billy T., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Rich D. and Jenkins, David G.. (2017). Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(7), pp. 638-642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.006
Comparison of ergometer- and track-based testing in junior track-sprint cyclists. Implications for talent identification and development
Tofari, Paul, Cormack, Stuart, Ebert, Tammie R., Gardner, A. S. and Kemp, Justin. (2017). Comparison of ergometer- and track-based testing in junior track-sprint cyclists. Implications for talent identification and development. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1243795
Neuromuscular impairments are associated with impaired head and trunk stability during gait in Parkinson fallers
Cole, Michael H., Naughton, Geraldine A. and Silburn, Peter A.. (2017). Neuromuscular impairments are associated with impaired head and trunk stability during gait in Parkinson fallers. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 31(1), pp. 34-47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1545968316656057
Non-motorized treadmill running is associated with higher cardiometabolic demands compared with overground and motorized treadmill running
Edwards, Robert B., Tofari, Paul J., Cormack, Stuart J. and Whyte, Douglas G.. (2017). Non-motorized treadmill running is associated with higher cardiometabolic demands compared with overground and motorized treadmill running. Frontiers in Physiology. 8(914), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00914
Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men
Filopoulos, Dean, Cormack, Stuart J. and Whyte, Douglas G.. (2017). Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men. European Journal of Sport Science. 17(7), pp. 821 - 829. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1317834
Influence of physical maturity status on sprinting speed among youth soccer players
McCunn, Robert, Weston, Matthew, Hill, John KA, Johnston, Richard and Gibson, Neil V.. (2017). Influence of physical maturity status on sprinting speed among youth soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(7), pp. 1795 - 1801. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001654
Effect of different repeated-high-intensity-effort bouts on subsequent running, skill performance, and neuromuscular function
Johnston, Rich D., Gabbett, Tim J., Jenkins, David G. and Speranza, Michael J.. (2016). Effect of different repeated-high-intensity-effort bouts on subsequent running, skill performance, and neuromuscular function. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 11(3), pp. 311-318. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0243
Assessing stability in mild and moderate Parkinson's disease : Can clinical measures provide insight?
Hubble, Ryan P., Silburn, Peter A., Naughton, Geraldine A. and Cole, Michael H.. (2016). Assessing stability in mild and moderate Parkinson's disease : Can clinical measures provide insight? Gait & Posture. 49(1), pp. 7-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.06.002
A systematic review on perceptual-motor calibration to changes in action capabilities
van Andel, Steven, Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2016). A systematic review on perceptual-motor calibration to changes in action capabilities. Human Movement Science. 51(1), pp. 59-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2016.11.004
Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation
Tofari, Paul J., Opar, David, Kemp, Justin Guy, Billaut, Francois and Cormack, Stuart John. (2016). Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.24926
Monitoring workload in throwing-dominant sports : A systematic review
Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim J., Cole, Michael H. and Naughton, Geraldine. (2016). Monitoring workload in throwing-dominant sports : A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 46, pp. 1503-1516. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0529-6
Effects of consecutive days of match play on technical performance in tennis
Gescheit, Danielle, Duffield, Rob, Skein, Melissa, Brydon, Neil, Cormack, Stuart John and Reid, Machar. (2016). Effects of consecutive days of match play on technical performance in tennis. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1244352
Use of a short-form balance confidence scale to predict future recurrent falls in people with Parkinson Disease
Cole, Michael H., Rippey, Jodi, Naughton, Geraldine A. and Silburn, Peter A.. (2016). Use of a short-form balance confidence scale to predict future recurrent falls in people with Parkinson Disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 97(1), pp. 152-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2015.07.027
The biomechanics of the modern golf swing : Implications for lower back injuries
Cole, Michael H. and Grimshaw, Paul N.. (2016). The biomechanics of the modern golf swing : Implications for lower back injuries. Sports Medicine. 46(3), pp. 339-351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0429-1
Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout?
Johnston, Rich D., Gabbett, Tim J., Walker, Shane, Walker, Ben and Jenkins, David G.. (2015). Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(3), pp. 816-821. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000679
The use of wearable microsensors to quantify sport-specific movements
Chambers, Ryan, Gabbett, Tim J., Cole, Michael H. and Beard, Adam. (2015). The use of wearable microsensors to quantify sport-specific movements. Sports Medicine. 45(7), pp. 1065-1081. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0332-9
Consecutive days of prolonged tennis match play : Performance, physical, and perceptual responses in trained players
Gescheit, Danielle, Cormack, Stuart, Reid, Machar and Duffield, Rob. (2015). Consecutive days of prolonged tennis match play : Performance, physical, and perceptual responses in trained players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10, pp. 913 - 920. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0329
Activity Profile of High-Level Australian Lacrosse Players
Polley, Christopher S., Cormack, Stuart J., Gabbett, Tim J. and Polglaze, Ted. (2015). Activity Profile of High-Level Australian Lacrosse Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(1), pp. 126 - 136. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000599
Wearable sensor use for assessing standing balance and walking stability in people with Parkinson’s Disease: A systematic review
Hubble, Ryan, Naughton, Geraldine, Silburn, Peter and Cole, Michael. (2015). Wearable sensor use for assessing standing balance and walking stability in people with Parkinson’s Disease: A systematic review. PLoS ONE. 10(4), pp. 1 - 22. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123705
The influence of physical fitness and playing standard on pacing strategies during a team-sport tournament
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim and Jenkins, David. (2015). The influence of physical fitness and playing standard on pacing strategies during a team-sport tournament. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10(8), pp. 1001 - 1008. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0005
Fatigue and pacing in rugby league players
Johnston, Richard. (2015). Fatigue and pacing in rugby league players [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbe35b0b9e
Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim and Jenkins, David. (2015). Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition. Sports Medicine - Open. 1(18), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0015-y
Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers
Gallo, Tania, Cormack, Stuart, Gabbett, Tim, Williams, Morgan and Lorenzen, Christian. (2015). Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(5), pp. 467 - 475. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.947311
Relationship between a standardized tackling proficiency test and match-play tackle performance in semiprofessional Rugby League players
Speranza, Michael, Gabbett, Tim, Johnston, Rich and Sheppard, Jeremy. (2015). Relationship between a standardized tackling proficiency test and match-play tackle performance in semiprofessional Rugby League players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10(6), pp. 754 - 760. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0044
Muscular strength and power correlates of tackling ability in semiprofessional Rugby League players
Speranza, Michael, Gabbett, Tim, Johnston, Richard and Sheppard, Jeremy. (2015). Muscular strength and power correlates of tackling ability in semiprofessional Rugby League players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(8), pp. 2071 - 2078. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000897
Trunk muscle exercises as a means of improving postural stability in people with Parkinson's disease : A protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Hubble, Ryan P., Naughton, Geraldine A., Silburn, Peter and Cole, Michael H.. (2014). Trunk muscle exercises as a means of improving postural stability in people with Parkinson's disease : A protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 4(12), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006095
Concurrent validity of accelerations measured using tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces
Cole, Michael H., van den Hoorn, Wolbert, Kavanagh, Justin K., Morrison, Steven, Hodges, Paul W., Smeathers, James E. and Kerr, Graham K.. (2014). Concurrent validity of accelerations measured using tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces. PLoS ONE. 9(5), pp. 1 - 12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098395
Applied sport science of Rugby League
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim J. and Jenkins, David. (2014). Applied sport science of Rugby League. Sports Medicine: reviews of applied medicine and science in sport and exercise. 44(8), pp. 1087 - 1100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0190-x
Executive function and postural instability in people with Parkinson's disease
Xu, Dong, Cole, Michael H., Mengersen, Kerrie, Silburn, Peter A., Qiu, Feng, Graepel, Cara and Kerr, Graham. (2014). Executive function and postural instability in people with Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's Disease. 2014(1), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/684758
The crunch factor's role in golf-related low back pain
Cole, Michael H. and Grimshaw, Paul N.. (2014). The crunch factor's role in golf-related low back pain. Spine Journal. 14(5), pp. 799-807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2013.09.019
Influence of Physical Contact on Pacing Strategies During Game-Based Activities
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim, Seibold, Anthony and Jenkins, David. (2014). Influence of Physical Contact on Pacing Strategies During Game-Based Activities. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(5), pp. 811 - 816. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2013-0424
Professionalism, golf coaching and a Master of Science degree : A commentary
Cole, Michael H.. (2014). Professionalism, golf coaching and a Master of Science degree : A commentary. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching. 9(4), pp. 861-864. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.9.4.717
Accelerometer Load as a Measure of Activity Profile in Different Standards of Netball Match Play
Cormack, Stuart, Smith, Renee, Mooney, Mitchell, Young, Warren and O'Brien, Brendan. (2014). Accelerometer Load as a Measure of Activity Profile in Different Standards of Netball Match Play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(2), pp. 283 - 291. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2012-0216
Strength and power profiling of athletes : Selecting tests and how to use the information for program design
McGuigan, Michael, Cormack, Stuart and Gill, Nicholas. (2013). Strength and power profiling of athletes : Selecting tests and how to use the information for program design. Strength and Conditioning Journal. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000011
Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in elite Australian football
Mooney, Mitchell, Cormack, Stuart, O'Brien, Brendan, Morgan, William and McGuigan, Michael. (2013). Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in elite Australian football. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182514683
Effects of textured insoles on balance in people with Parkinson's Disease
Qiu, Feng, Cole, Michael H., Davids, Keith W., Hennig, Ewald M., Silburn, Peter A., Netscher, Heather and Kerr, Graham K.. (2013). Effects of textured insoles on balance in people with Parkinson's Disease. PLoS ONE. 8(12), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083309
Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition
Johnston, Rich D., Gibson, Neil V., Twist, Craig, Gabbett, Tim. J., MacNay, Sophie A. and MacFarlane, Niall G.. (2013). Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 27(3), pp. 643-654. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825bb469
Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players
Gibson, Neil V., Currie, J., Johnston, Richard and Hill, J.. (2013). Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 53(1), pp. 9 - 16.
Influence of neuromuscular fatigue on accelerometer load in elite Australian football players
Cormack, Stuart, Mooney, Mitchell, Morgan, Will and McGuigan, Michael. (2013). Influence of neuromuscular fatigue on accelerometer load in elite Australian football players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.8.4.373
Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players
Johnston, Richard, Gabbett, Timothy and Jenkins, David. (2013). Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.10.009
Do physical capacity and interchange rest periods influence match exercise-intensity profile in Australian football?
Mooney, Mitchell, Cormack, Stuart, O'Brien, Brendan and Coutts, Aaron. (2013). Do physical capacity and interchange rest periods influence match exercise-intensity profile in Australian football? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.8.2.165
Cognitive tasks influence balance performance in people with Parkinson's disease
Xu, Dong, Muthalib, Mark, Pegoraro, Roger, Mengersen, Kerrie, Cole, Michael, Silburn, Peter and Kerr, Graham. (2013). Cognitive tasks influence balance performance in people with Parkinson's disease. 17th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders. United States of America: Movement Disorders Society. pp. S200 - S200
International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level conterparts
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron and Aughey, Robert. (2012). International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level conterparts. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 26(4), pp. 947 - 952. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822e5913
A secondary motor task exaggerates gait deficits in Parkinson's fallers
Kerr, Graham K., Cole, Michael, Wood, Joanne M. and Silburn, Peter A.. (2012). A secondary motor task exaggerates gait deficits in Parkinson's fallers. Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology. International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology.
How well do clinical tests predict future falls in older people?
Kerr, Graham K., Wood, Joanne M., Lacherez, Philippe F. and Cole, Michael H.. (2012). How well do clinical tests predict future falls in older people?
Cognitive function and postural instability in people with Parkinson's disease
Xu, Dong, Cole, Michael, Mengersen, Kerrie, Silburn, Peter and Kerr, Graham. (2012). Cognitive function and postural instability in people with Parkinson's disease.
Hamstring asymmetry: The key to recurring injury
Hill, Cameron and Cole, Michael. (2012). Hamstring asymmetry: The key to recurring injury.
A spatiotemporal analysis of gait freezing and the impact of pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation
Thevathasan, Wesley, Cole, Michael H., Graepel, Cara L., Hyam, Jonathan A., Jenkinson, Ned, Brittain, John-Stuart, Coyne, Terry J., Silburn, Peter A., Aziz, Tipu Z., Kerr, Graham K. and Brown, Peter. (2012). A spatiotemporal analysis of gait freezing and the impact of pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. Brain. 135, pp. 1446 - 1454. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws039
Performance of a secondary motor task reveals altered gait patterns in future Parkinson's fallers
Kerr, Graham K., Cole, Michael H., Wood, Joanne M. and Silburn, Peter A.. (2012). Performance of a secondary motor task reveals altered gait patterns in future Parkinson's fallers.
GPS Analysis of an International Field Hockey Tournament
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron and Aughey, Robert. (2012). GPS Analysis of an International Field Hockey Tournament. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 7(3), pp. 224 - 231. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.7.3.224
Is "train as you play" the way to go?
Gabbett, Tim and Cormack, Stuart. (2012). Is "train as you play" the way to go? 5th Exercise and Sports Science Australia Conference. pp. 41 - 42
Pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation produces sustained improvement in primary progressive freezing of gait
Wilcox, Robert A., Cole, Michael H., Wong, David, Coyne, Terry, Silburn, Peter and Kerr, Graham. (2011). Pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation produces sustained improvement in primary progressive freezing of gait. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 82(11), pp. 1256 - 1259. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2010.213462
Falls in Parkinson's disease: Evidence for altered stepping strategies on compliant surfaces
Cole, Michael H., Silburn, Peter A., Wood, Joanne M. and Kerr, Graham K.. (2011). Falls in Parkinson's disease: Evidence for altered stepping strategies on compliant surfaces. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. 17(8), pp. 610 - 616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.05.019
The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football :A mediation approach
Mooney, Mitchell, O'Brien, Brendan, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Berry, Jason and Young, Warren. (2011). The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football :A mediation approach. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 14(5), pp. 447 - 452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.03.010
Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function?
Young, Warren, Cormack, Stuart and Crichton, Michael. (2011). Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 6(1), pp. 51 - 57. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.6.1.51
Risk of falls, injurious falls, and other injuries resulting from visual impairment among older adults with age-related macular degeneration
Wood, Joanne M., Lacherez, Philippe, Black, Alex A., Cole, Michael H., Boon, Mei Ying and Kerr, Graham K.. (2011). Risk of falls, injurious falls, and other injuries resulting from visual impairment among older adults with age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 52(8), pp. 5088 - 5092. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6644
A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance
Tofari, Paul J., McLean, Blake D., Kemp, Justin and Cormack, Stuart. (2011). A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(1), pp. 62 - 68.
Falls in Parkinson's disease: Kinematic evidence for impaired head and trunk control
Cole, Michael H., Silburn, Peter A., Wood, Joanne M., Worringham, Charles J. and Kerr, Graham K.. (2010). Falls in Parkinson's disease: Kinematic evidence for impaired head and trunk control. Movement Disorders. 25(14), pp. 2369 - 2378. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.23292
The Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Distance in Team Sport Specific Running Patterns
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Boyd, Luke and Aughey, Robert. (2010). The Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Distance in Team Sport Specific Running Patterns. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(3), pp. 328 - 341. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.328
Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Boyd, Luke and Aughey, Robert. (2010). Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(4), pp. 565 - 569. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.4.565
Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players
McLean, Blake, Coutts, Aaron, Kelly, Vincent, McGuigan, Michael and Cormack, Stuart. (2010). Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(3), pp. 367 - 383. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.367
Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS
Brewer, Cameron, Dawson, Brian, Heasman, Jarryd, Stewart, Glenn and Cormack, Stuart. (2010). Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 13(6), pp. 618 - 623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2010.01.005
Postural stability and gait among older adults with age-related maculopathy
Wood, Joanne M., Lacherez, Philippe F., Black, Alex A., Cole, Michael H., Boon, Mei Ying and Kerr, Graham K.. (2009). Postural stability and gait among older adults with age-related maculopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 50(1), pp. 482 - 487. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-1942
The x-factor and its relationship to golfing performance
Cole, Michael H. and Grimshaw, Paul N.. (2009). The x-factor and its relationship to golfing performance. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports. 5(1), pp. 1 - 19. https://doi.org/10.2202/1559-0410.1134
Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players
McGuigan, Michael, Cormack, Stuart and Newton, Robert U.. (2009). Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(1), pp. 26 - 32. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818753ca
Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match
Cormack, Stuart, Newton, Robert U. and McGuigan, Michael. (2008). Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(3), pp. 359 - 374. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.3.359
Reliability of measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jumps
Cormack, Stuart, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael and Doyle, Tim. (2008). Reliability of measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jumps. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(2), pp. 131 - 144. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.2.131
Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season
Cormack, Stuart John, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael R. and Cormie, Prue. (2008). Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(4), pp. 439 - 453. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.4.439
Electromyography of the trunk and abdominal muscles in golfers with and without low back pain
Cole, M. H. and Grimshaw, P. N.. (2008). Electromyography of the trunk and abdominal muscles in golfers with and without low back pain. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 11(2), pp. 174 - 181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.02.006
Trunk muscle onset and cessation in golfers with and without low back pain
Cole, M. H. and Grimshaw, P. N.. (2008). Trunk muscle onset and cessation in golfers with and without low back pain. Journal of Biomechanics. 41(13), pp. 2829 - 2833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.07.004
Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: The incremental load power profile
Sheppard, Jeremy, Cormack, Stuart, Taylor, Kristie-Lee, McGuigan, Michael and Newton, Robert U.. (2008). Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: The incremental load power profile. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(4), pp. 1320 - 1326. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d671b
The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers
Young, Warren, Russell, Andrew, Burge, Peter, Clarke, Alex, Cormack, Stuart and Stewart, Glenn. (2008). The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(2), pp. 199 - 206. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.2.199