Daily Walking among Commuters: A cross-sectional study of associaations with residential, work, and regional accessibility in Melbourne, Australia (2012-2014)

Journal article


Barr, Alison, Simons, Koen, Mavoa, Suzanne, Badland, Hannah, Giles-Corti, Billie, Scheurer, Jan, Korevaar, Elizabeth, Stewart, Josh and Bentley, Rebecca. (2019). Daily Walking among Commuters: A cross-sectional study of associaations with residential, work, and regional accessibility in Melbourne, Australia (2012-2014). Environmental Health Perspectives. 127(9), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3395
AuthorsBarr, Alison, Simons, Koen, Mavoa, Suzanne, Badland, Hannah, Giles-Corti, Billie, Scheurer, Jan, Korevaar, Elizabeth, Stewart, Josh and Bentley, Rebecca
Abstract

Background:
Most research on walking for transport has focused on the walkability of residential neighborhoods, overlooking the contribution of places of work/study and the ease with which destinations outside the immediate neighborhood can be accessed, referred to as regional accessibility.

Objectives:
We aimed to examine if local accessibility/walkability around place of work/study and regional accessibility are independently and interactively associated with walking.

Methods:
A sample of 4,913 adult commuters was derived from a household travel survey in Melbourne, Australia (2012–2014). Local accessibility was measured as the availability of destinations within an 800-m pedestrian network from homes and places of work/education using a local living index [LLI; 0–3 (low), 4–6, 7–9, and 10–12 (high) destinations]. Regional accessibility was estimated using employment opportunity, commute travel time by mode, and public transport accessibility. Every individual’s potential minutes of walking for each level of exposure (observed and counter to fact) were predicted using multivariable regression models including confounders and interaction terms. For each contrast of exposure levels of interest, the corresponding within-individual differences in predicted walking were averaged across individuals to estimate marginal effects.

Results:
High LLI at home and work/education was associated with more minutes walking than low LLI by 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3, 5.5] and 8.3 (95% CI: 7.3, 9.3) min, respectively, in mutually adjusted models. Across regional accessibility measures, an independent association with walking and an interactive association with LLI at work/education was observed. To take one example, the regional accessibility measure of “Jobs within 30 min by public transport” was associated with 4.3 (95% CI: 2.9, 5.7) more mins walking for high (≥30,000 jobs) compared with low (<4,000 jobs) accessibility in adjusted models. The estimated difference for high vs. low LLI (work/education) (among those with low regional accessibility) was 3.6 min (95% CI: 2.3, 4.8), while the difference for high vs. low regional accessibility (among those with low LLI) was negligible (−0.01; 95% CI: −1.2, 1.2). However, the combined effect estimate for high LLI and high regional accessibility, compared with low on both, was 12.8 min (95% CI: 11.1, 14.5), or 9.3 (95% CI: 6.7, 11.8) min/d walking more than expected based on the separate effect estimates.

Conclusions:
High local living (work/education) and regional accessibility, regardless of the regional accessibility measure used, are positively associated with physical activity. High exposure to both is associated with greater benefit than exposure to one or the other alone.

Year2019
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Journal citation127 (9), pp. 1-12
PublisherNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
ISSN0091-6765
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3395
PubMed ID31532240
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85072282664
PubMed Central IDPMC6792384
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-12
FunderAustralian Research Council (ARC)
National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online18 Sep 2019
Publication process dates
Accepted22 Aug 2019
Deposited09 Dec 2021
ARC Funded ResearchThis output has been funded, wholly or partially, under the Australian Research Council Act 2001
Grant IDARC/LP140100680
ARC/150100131
NHMRC/11201035
NHMRC/1107672
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Badland, Hannah, Davern, Melanie, Villanueva, Karen, Mavoa, Suzanne, Milner, Allison, Roberts, Rebecca and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2016). Conceptualising and measuring spatial indicators of employment through a liveability lens. Social Indicators Research. 127(2), pp. 565-576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-0978-6
Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context : Implications for policy and practice
Badland, Hannah, Mavoa, Suzanne, Livingston, Michael, David, Stephanie and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2016). Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context : Implications for policy and practice. Drug and Alcohol Review. 35(3), pp. 298-306. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12341
Children's Out-of-School Independently Mobile Trips, Active Travel, and Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Examination from the Kids in the City Study
Oliver, Melody, Parker, Karl, Witten, Karen, Mavoa, Suzanne, Badland, Hannah M., Donovan, Phil, Chaudhury, Moushumi and Kearns, Robin. (2016). Children's Out-of-School Independently Mobile Trips, Active Travel, and Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Examination from the Kids in the City Study. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 13(3), pp. 318-324. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2015-0043
Associations between the neighborhood environment and moderate-to-vigorous walking in New Zealand children : Findings from the URBAN Study
McGrath, Leslie J., Hinckson, Erica A., Hopkins, Will G., Mavoa, Suzanne, Witten, Karen and Schofield, Grant. (2016). Associations between the neighborhood environment and moderate-to-vigorous walking in New Zealand children : Findings from the URBAN Study. Sports Medicine. 46(7), pp. 1003-1017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0533-x
Active transport, physical activity, and distance between home and school in children and adolescents
Duncan, Scott, White, Kate, Mavoa, Suzanne, Stewart, Tom, Hinckson, Erica and Schofield, Grant. (2016). Active transport, physical activity, and distance between home and school in children and adolescents. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 13(4), pp. 447-453. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2015-0054
The development of policy-relevant transport indicators to monitor health behaviours and outcomes
Badland, Hannah, Mavoa, Suzanne, Villanueva, Karen, Roberts, Rebecca, Davern, Melanie and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2015). The development of policy-relevant transport indicators to monitor health behaviours and outcomes. Journal of Transport and Health. 2(2), pp. 103-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2014.07.005
Developing indicators of public open space to promote health and wellbeing in communities
Villanueva, Karen, Badland, Hannah, Hooper, Paula, Koohsari, Mohammad, Mavoa, Suzanne, Davern, Melanie, Roberts, Rebecca, Goldfeld, Sharon and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2015). Developing indicators of public open space to promote health and wellbeing in communities. Applied Geography. 57, pp. 112-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.12.003
Associations between the neighbourhood built environment and out of school physical activity and active travel : An examination from the Kids in the City study
Oliver, Melody, Mavoa, Suzanne, Badland, Hannah, Parker, Karl, Donovan, Phil, Kearns, Robin, Lin, En-Yi and Witten, Karen. (2015). Associations between the neighbourhood built environment and out of school physical activity and active travel : An examination from the Kids in the City study. Health & Place. 36, pp. 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.09.005
Environmental and socio-demographic associates of children's active transport to school : a cross-sectional from the URBAN Study
Oliver, Melody, Badland, Hannah, Mavoa, Suzanne, Witten, Karen, Kearns, Robin, Ellaway, Anne, Hinckson, Erica, Mackay, Lisa and Schluter, Philip. (2014). Environmental and socio-demographic associates of children's active transport to school : a cross-sectional from the URBAN Study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 11, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-11-70
Do low-income neighbourhoods have the least green space? A cross-sectional study of Australia's most populous cities
Astell-Burt, Thomas, Feng, Xiaoqi, Mavoa, Suzanne, Badland, Hannah and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2014). Do low-income neighbourhoods have the least green space? A cross-sectional study of Australia's most populous cities. BMC Public Health. 14, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-292
Distance to school is associated with sedentary time in children : findings from the URBAN study
Hinckson, Erica, McGrath, Les, Hopkins, Will, Oliver, Melody, Badland, Hannah, Mavoa, Suzanne, Witten, Karen and Kearns, Robin. (2014). Distance to school is associated with sedentary time in children : findings from the URBAN study. Frontiers in Public Health. 2, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2014.00151
Developing a research and practice tool to measure walkability : a demonstration project
Giles-Corti, Billie, Macaulay, Gus, Middleton, Nick, Boruff, Bryan, Bull, Fiona, Butterworth, Iain, Badland, Hannah, Mavoa, Suzanne, Roberts, Rebecca and Christian, Hayley. (2014). Developing a research and practice tool to measure walkability : a demonstration project. Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 25(3), pp. 160-166. https://doi.org/10.1071/HE14050
What constitutes a 'trip'? Examining child journey attributes using GPS and self-report
Oliver, Melody, Mavoa, Suzanne, Badland, Hannah, Carroll, Penelope, Asiasiga, Lanuola, Tavae, N, Kearns, Robin and Witten, Karen. (2014). What constitutes a 'trip'? Examining child journey attributes using GPS and self-report. Children's Geographies. 12(2), pp. 249-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2014.890370
Utility of passive photography to objectively audit built environment features of active transport journeys : an observational study
Oliver, Melody, Doherty, Aiden, Kelly, Paul, Badland, Hannah, Mavoa, Suzanne, Shepherd, Janine, Kerr, Jacqueline, Marshall, Simon, Hamilton, Alexander and Foster, Charlie. (2013). Utility of passive photography to objectively audit built environment features of active transport journeys : an observational study. International Journal of Health Geographics. 12(20), pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-12-20
Using simple agent-based modeling to inform and enhance neighborhood walkability
Badland, Hannah, White, Marcus, MacAulay, Gus, Eagleson, Serryn, Mavoa, Suzanne, Pettit, Christopher and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2013). Using simple agent-based modeling to inform and enhance neighborhood walkability. International Journal of Health Geographics. 12, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-12-58
Portable Global Positioning System Receivers : Static Validity and Environmental Conditions
Duncan, Scott, Stewart, Tom, Oliver, Melody, Mavoa, Suzanne, MacRae, Deborah, Badland, Hannah and Duncan, Mitch. (2013). Portable Global Positioning System Receivers : Static Validity and Environmental Conditions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 44(2), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.10.013
Using SenseCam Images to Assess the Environment
Mavoa, Suzanne, Oliver, Melody, Kerr, Jacqueline, Doherty, Aiden and Witten, Karen. (2013). Using SenseCam Images to Assess the Environment. United States: Association for Computing Machinery. pp. 84 https://doi.org/10.1145/2526667.2526683
Neighborhood built environment and transport and leisure physical activity : findings using objective exposure and outcome measures in New Zealand
Witten, Karen, Blakely, Tony, Bagheri, Nasser, Badland, Hannah, Ivory, Vivienne, Pearce, Jamie, Mavoa, Suzanne, Hinckson, Erica and Schofield, Grant. (2012). Neighborhood built environment and transport and leisure physical activity : findings using objective exposure and outcome measures in New Zealand. Environmental Health Perspectives. 120(7), pp. 971-977. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104584
Association of neighbourhood residence and preferences with the built environment, work-related travel behaviours, and health implications for employed adults : Findings from the URBAN study
Badland, Hannah, Oliver, Melody, Kearns, Robin, Mavoa, Suzanne, Witten, Karen, Duncan, Mitch and Batty, G. David. (2012). Association of neighbourhood residence and preferences with the built environment, work-related travel behaviours, and health implications for employed adults : Findings from the URBAN study. Social Science and Medicine. 75(8), pp. 1469-1476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.05.029
GIS based destination accessibility via public transit and walking in Auckland, New Zealand
Mavoa, Suzanne, Witten, Karen, McCreanor, Tim and O'Sullivan, David. (2012). GIS based destination accessibility via public transit and walking in Auckland, New Zealand. Journal of Transport Geography. 20(1), pp. 15-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.10.001
Linking GPS and travel diary data using sequence alignment in a study of children's independent mobility
Mavoa, Suzanne, Oliver, Melody, Witten, Karen and Badland, Hannah. (2011). Linking GPS and travel diary data using sequence alignment in a study of children's independent mobility. International Journal of Health Geographics. 10, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-10-64
Social and recreational travel : The destinations, travel modes and CO2 emissions of New Zealand households
Witten, Karen, Huakau, John and Mavoa, Suzanne. (2011). Social and recreational travel : The destinations, travel modes and CO2 emissions of New Zealand households. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand : te puna whakaaro. (37), pp. 1-13.
Kids in the city study : research design and methodology
Oliver, Melody, Witten, Karen, Kearns, Robin, Mavoa, Suzanne, Badland, Hannah, Carroll, Penelope, Drumheller, Chelsea, Tavae, Nicola, Asiasiga, Lanuola, Jelley, Su, Kaiwai, Hector, Opit, Simon, Lin, En-Yi, Sweetsur, Paul, Barnes, Helen, Mason, Nic and Ergler, Christina. (2011). Kids in the city study : research design and methodology. BMC Public Health. 11, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-587