The evaluation of the 3-30-300 green space rule and mental health
Nieuwenhuijsen, Marius Joannes, Dadvand, Payam, Marquez, Sandra, Bartoll, Xavier, Barboza, Evelise, Cirach, Marta, Borrell, Carme and Zijlema, Wilma. (2022). The evaluation of the 3-30-300 green space rule and mental health. Environmental Research. 215, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.114387
|Authors||Nieuwenhuijsen, Marius Joannes, Dadvand, Payam, Marquez, Sandra, Bartoll, Xavier, Barboza, Evelise, Cirach, Marta, Borrell, Carme and Zijlema, Wilma|
Background and aims: Urban green space has many health benefits, but it is still unclear how much actually is needed for better health. Recently a new 3-30-300 rule of thumb for urban forestry and urban greening has been proposed, but this rule has not been evaluated for benefits on health. The rule requires that every citizen should be able to see at least three trees from their home, have 30 percent tree canopy cover in their neighbourhood and not live more than 300 m away from the nearest park or green space. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the 3-30-300 green space rule and its components in relation to mental health.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a population-based sample of 3145 individuals aged 15-97 years from in Barcelona, Spain who participated in the Barcelona Health Survey (2016-2017). We created 3-30-300 green space indicators using questionnaire data, GIS, remote sensing and land cover maps. Mental health status was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and also the use of tranquilizer/sedatives or antidepressants and psychiatrist or psychologist visits. Analyses were conducted using mixed effects logistic regression models with districts as the random effect, adjusted for relevant covariates.
Results: We found that people in Barcelona had relatively little exposure to green space, whether through window view, living in an area with sufficient greenness, or access to a major green space, and only 4.7% met a surrogate 3-30-300 green space rule. Residential surrounding greenness, but not tree window view or access to major green space, was significantly associated with better mental health, less medication use, and fewer psychologist or psychiatrist visits. Meeting the full surrogate 3-30-300 green space rule was associated with better mental health, less medication use, and fewer psychologist or psychiatrist visits, but only for the latter combined the association was statistically significant (Odds ratio = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.91).
Conclusion: Few people achieved the 3-30-300 green space in Barcelona and we used a surrogate measure. We observed health benefits when the full surrogate rule was met.
|Keywords||3-30-300; Anti-depressants; Greenness; Greenspace; Medication use; Mental health; Psychiatrist visits; Psychologist visits; Sedatives; Tranquilizer; Tree cover|
|Year||01 Jan 2022|
|Journal citation||215, pp. 1-6|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.114387|
|Web address (URL)||https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935122017145|
|Open access||Published as ‘gold’ (paid) open access|
|Research or scholarly||Research|
File Access Level
|28 Sep 2022|
|Publication process dates|
|Accepted||17 Sep 2022|
|Deposited||11 Jan 2023|
© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
|Place of publication||United States|
|License: CC BY 4.0|
|File access level: Open|
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