The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists

Journal article


Woods, Amy L., Rice, Anthony J., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Wallett, Alice M., Lundy, Bronwen, Rogers, Margot A., Welvaert, Marijke, Halson, Shona, McKune, Andrew and Thompson, Kevin G.. (2018) The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists. PLoS ONE. 13(2), pp. 1 - 24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191644
AuthorsWoods, Amy L., Rice, Anthony J., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Wallett, Alice M., Lundy, Bronwen, Rogers, Margot A., Welvaert, Marijke, Halson, Shona, McKune, Andrew and Thompson, Kevin G.
Abstract

Background: Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method: Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a “Baseline” week (100% of regular training load), a “Build” week (~120% of Baseline load), two “Loading” weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two “Recovery” weeks (~80% of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. Results: The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = < 0.001), body mass (F(2,19.242) = 4.3362, p = 0.03), fat mass (F(2,20.35) = 56.2494, p = < 0.001) and HRV (F(2,22.608) = 6.5212, p = 0.005); all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87) = 8.2622, p = < 0.001), aerobic performance (F(5,118.26) = 2.766, p = 0.02) and increase in total mood disturbance (F(5, 110.61) = 8.1159, p = < 0.001). Conclusion: Intensified training periods elicit greater energy demands in trained cyclists, which, if not sufficiently compensated with increased dietary intake, appears to provoke a cascade of metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in an attempt to restore homeostasis and conserve energy. The proactive monitoring of energy intake, power output, mood state, body mass and HRV during intensified training periods may alleviate fatigue and attenuate the observed decrease in RMR, providing more optimal conditions for a positive training adaptation.

Year2018
JournalPLoS ONE
Journal citation13 (2), pp. 1 - 24
PublisherPublic Library of Science
ISSN1932-6203
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191644
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85042200707
Open accessOpen access
Page range1 - 24
Research GroupMary MacKillop Institute for Health Research
Publisher's version
License
Place of publicationUnited States of America
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Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions
Juliff, Laura E., Halson, Shona and Peiffer, Jeremiah John. (2015) Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 18(1), pp. 13 - 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.02.007
Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, Gregory D., Halson, Shona, Martin, David T., West, Nicholas P. and Sargent, Charli. (2015) Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(3), pp. 293 - 299. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.942690
Confounding compression: The effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing
Brophy-Williams, Ned, Driller, Matthew W., Shing, C., Fell, James W. and Halson, Shona. (2015) Confounding compression: The effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(13), pp. 1403 - 1410. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.990489
Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players
Nédélec, Mathieu, Halson, Shona, Delecroix, Barthélémy, Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset, Ahmaidi, S. and Dupont, Gregory. (2015) Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players. Sports Medicine. 45(11), pp. 1547 - 1559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0377-9
Altitude exposure at 1800 m increases haemoglobin mass in distance runners
Lewis, Laura, Halliday, Iona, Abbiss, Chris R., Saunders, Philo and Gore, Christopher J.. (2015) Altitude exposure at 1800 m increases haemoglobin mass in distance runners. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(2), pp. 413 - 417.
Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: A critical review of the literature
Nédélec, Mathieu, Halson, Shona, Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset, Ahmaidi, S. and Dupont, Gregory. (2015) Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: A critical review of the literature. Sports Medicine. 45(10), pp. 1387 - 1400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0358-z
Relative match intensities at high altitude in highly-trained young soccer players (ISA3600)
Buchheit, M., Hammond, Kristal, Bourdon, Pitre C., Simpson, Ben M., Lewis, Laura, Schmidt, Walter F., Gore, Christopher J. and Aughey, Robert. (2015) Relative match intensities at high altitude in highly-trained young soccer players (ISA3600). Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(1), pp. 98 - 102.
High altitude, prolonged exercise, and the athlete biological passport
Schumacher, Yorck O., Lewis, Laura, Christian, Ryan, Lobigs, Louisa M., Qi, Jiliang, Fan, Rongyun, He, Yingying, Wang, Hailing, Gore, Christopher J. and Ma, Fuhai. (2015) High altitude, prolonged exercise, and the athlete biological passport. Drug Testing and Analysis. 7(1), pp. 48 - 55. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1717
Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, Gregory D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, Charli. (2015) Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports. European Journal of Sport Science. 15(2), pp. 94 - 100. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.932016
Pre-altitude serum ferritin levels and daily oral iron supplement dose mediate iron parameter and hemoglobin mass responses to altitude exposure
Govus, Andrew D., Lewis, Laura, Abbiss, Chris R., Peeling, P. and Gore, Christopher J.. (2015) Pre-altitude serum ferritin levels and daily oral iron supplement dose mediate iron parameter and hemoglobin mass responses to altitude exposure. PLoS ONE. 10(8), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135120
Influence of contrast shower and water immersion on recovery in elite netballers
Juliff, Laura E., Halson, Shona, Bonetti, Darrell L., Versey, Nathan, Driller, Matthew W. and Peiffer, Jeremiah John. (2014) Influence of contrast shower and water immersion on recovery in elite netballers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 28(8), pp. 2353 - 2358. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000417
Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes
Halson, Shona. (2014) Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Medicine. 44(Suppl 2), pp. 139 - 147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0253-z
Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists?
Halson, Shona, Bartram, Jason C., West, Nicholas P., Stephens, Jessica M., Argus, Christos K., Driller, Matthew W., Sargent, Charli, Lastella, Michelle, Hopkins, Will G. and Martin, David T.. (2014) Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 46(8), pp. 1631 - 1639. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000268
Lower running performance and exacerbated fatigue in soccer played at 1600 m
Lewis, Laura, Hammond, Kristal, Varley, Matthew C., Gore, Christopher J., Billaut, Francois and Aughey, Robert. (2014) Lower running performance and exacerbated fatigue in soccer played at 1600 m. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(3), pp. 397 - 404. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2012-0375
Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers
Sargent, Charli, Halson, Shona and Roach, Gregory D.. (2014) Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers. European Journal of Sport Science. 14(Supplement 1), pp. 310 - 315. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2012.696711
Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep
Halson, Shona. (2014) Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Medicine. 44(Supplement 1), pp. 13 - 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0147-0
Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study
Robey, Elisa, Dawson, Brian, Halson, Shona, Gregson, Warren, Goodman, Carmel and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2014) Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study. European Journal of Sport Science. 14(5), pp. 410 - 417. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.843024
Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression clothing
Brophy-Williams, Ned, Driller, Matthew, Halson, Shona, Fell, James W. and Shing, C.. (2014) Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression clothing. Sports Engineering. 17(1), pp. 55 - 60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-013-0125-z
Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass
Lewis, Laura, Schumacher, Yorck O., Clark, Sally, Christian, Ryan, Menaspà, Paolo, Plowman, Jamie, Stephens, Brian, Qi, Jiliang, Fan, Rongyun, He, Yingying, Martin, David T., Thompson, Kevin G., Gore, Christopher J. and Ma, Fuhai. (2014) Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass. Journal of Applied Physiology. 117(5), pp. 463 - 472. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00242.2014
Four weeks of IV iron supplementation reduces perceived fatigue and mood disturbance in distance runners
Woods, Amy L., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Saunders, Philo U., Lovell, Greg, Hughes, David, Fazakerley, Ruth, Anderson, Bev, Gore, Christopher J. and Thompson, Kevin G.. (2014) Four weeks of IV iron supplementation reduces perceived fatigue and mood disturbance in distance runners. PLoS ONE. 9(9), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108042
Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists
Hoon, Matthew, Hopkins, William, Jones, Andrew, Martin, David, Halson, Shona, West, Nicholas, Johnson, Nathan and Burke, Louise. (2014) Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 39(9), pp. 1043 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0574
The Effect of Variable Doses of Inorganic Nitrate-Rich Betroot Juice on Simulated 2000-m Rowing Performance in Trained Athletes
Hoon, Matthew, Jones, Andrew, Johnson, Nathan, Blackwell, James, Broad, Elizabeth, Lundy, Bronwen, Rice, Anthony and Burke, Louise. (2014) The Effect of Variable Doses of Inorganic Nitrate-Rich Betroot Juice on Simulated 2000-m Rowing Performance in Trained Athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(4), pp. 615 - 620. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2013-0207
Acute hypoxic exercise does not alter post-exercise iron metabolism in moderately trained endurance athletes
Govus, Andrew D., Abbiss, Chris R., Lewis, Laura, Swinkels, Dorine W., Laarakkers, Coby M., Gore, Christopher J. and Peeling, P. (2014) Acute hypoxic exercise does not alter post-exercise iron metabolism in moderately trained endurance athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 114(10), pp. 2183 - 2191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-2938-2
Reliability of a 2-bout exercise test on a wattbike cycle ergometer
Driller, Matthew W., Argus, Christos K., Bartram, Jason C., Bonaventura, Jacinta, Martin, David T., West, Nicholas P. and Halson, Shona. (2014) Reliability of a 2-bout exercise test on a wattbike cycle ergometer. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(2), pp. 340 - 345. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2013-0103
Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training
Aughey, Robert J., Buchheit, Martin, Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Roach, Gregory D., Sargent, Charli, Billaut, François, Varley, Matthew C., Bourdon, Pitre C. and Gore, Christopher J.. (2013) Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(18), pp. 1150-1154. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092764
Wellness, fatigue and physical performance acclimatisation to a 2-week soccer camp at 3600 m (ISA3600)
Buchheit, Martin, Simpson, Ben M., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Hammond, Kristal, Kley, Marlen, Schmidt, Walter F., Aughey, Robert J., Soria, Rudy, Sargent, Charli, Roach, Gregory D., Claros, Jesus C. Jimenez, Wachsmuth, Nadine, Gore, Christopher J. and Bourdon, Pitre C.. (2013) Wellness, fatigue and physical performance acclimatisation to a 2-week soccer camp at 3600 m (ISA3600). British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(Suppl 1), p. i100. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092749
The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude : A comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)
Roach, Gregory D., Schmidt, Walter F., Aughey, Robert J., Bourdon, Pitre C., Soria, Rudy, Claros, Jesus C. Jimenez, Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Buchheit, Martin, Simpson, Ben M., Hammond, Kristal, Kley, Marlen, Wachsmuth, Nadine, Gore, Christopher J. and Sargent, Charli. (2013) The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude : A comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600). British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(Suppl 1), p. i114. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092843
The impact of altitude on the sleep of young elite soccer players (ISA3600)
Sargent, Charli, Schmidt, Walter F., Aughey, Robert J., Bourdon, Pitre C., Soria, Rudy, Claros, Jesus C. Jimenez, Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Buchheit, Martin, Simpson, Ben M., Hammond, Kristal, Kley, Marlen, Wachsmuth, Nadine, Gore, Christopher J. and Roach, Gregory D.. (2013) The impact of altitude on the sleep of young elite soccer players (ISA3600). British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(Suppl 1), p. i86. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092829
The effects of injury and illness on haemoglobin mass
Gough, C. E., Sharpe, K., Garvican, L. A., Anson, J. M., Saunders, P. U. and Gore, C. J.. (2013) The effects of injury and illness on haemoglobin mass. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 34(9), pp. 763-769. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1333692
The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike world championships
Abbiss, Chris R., Ross, Megan L. R., Garvican, Laura A., Ross, Neil, Pottgiesser, Torben, Gregory, John and Martin, David T.. (2013) The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike world championships. Journal of Sports Sciences. 31(7), pp. 787-794. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.751118
Soccer activity profile of altitude versus sea-level natives during acclimatisation to 3600 m (ISA3600)
Aughey, Robert J., Hammond, Kristal, Varley, Matthew C., Schmidt, Walter F., Bourdon, Pitre C., Buchheit, Martin, Simpson, Ben, Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Kley, Marlen, Soria, Rudy, Sargent, Charli, Roach, Gregory D., Claros, Jesus C. Jimenez, Wachsmuth, Nadine and Gore, Christopher J.. (2013) Soccer activity profile of altitude versus sea-level natives during acclimatisation to 3600 m (ISA3600). British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(Suppl 1), pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092776
Relationship between changes in haemoglobin mass and maximal oxygen uptake after hypoxic exposure
Saunders, Philo U., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Schmidt, Walter F. and Gore, Christopher J.. (2013) Relationship between changes in haemoglobin mass and maximal oxygen uptake after hypoxic exposure. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(Suppl 1), pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092841
Predicting sickness during a 2-week soccer camp at 3600 m (ISA3600)
Buchheit, Martin, Simpson, Ben M., Schmidt, Walter F., Aughey, Robert J., Soria, Rudy, Hunt, Robert A., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Pyne, David B., Gore, Christopher J. and Bourdon, Pitre C.. (2013) Predicting sickness during a 2-week soccer camp at 3600 m (ISA3600). British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(Suppl 1), pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092757
Methods of the international study on soccer at altitude 3600 m (ISA3600)
Gore, Christopher J., Aughey, Robert J., Bourdon, Pitre C., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Soria, Rudy, Claros, Jesus C. Jimenez, Sargent, Charli, Roach, Gregory D., Buchheit, Martin, Simpson, Ben M., Hammond, Kristal, Kley, Marlen, Wachsmuth, Nadine, Pepper, Mark, Edwards, Alistair, Cuenca, Douglas, Vidmar, Tony, Spielvogel, Hilde and Schmidt, Walter F.. (2013) Methods of the international study on soccer at altitude 3600 m (ISA3600). British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(Supplement 1), p. i80–i85. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092770
Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600)
Wachsmuth, Nadine, Kley, Marlen, Spielvogel, Hilde, Aughey, Robert J., Gore, Christopher J., Bourdon, Pitre C., Hammond, Kristal, Sargent, Charli, Roach, Gregory D., Sanchez, Rudy Soria, Jimenez Claros, Jesus C., Schmidt, Walter F. and Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.. (2013) Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600). British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47(Supplement 1), pp. i93-i99. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092761
Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-analysis
Gore, Christopher, Sharpe, Ken, Garvican-Lewis, Laura, Saunders, Philo, Humberstone, Clare, Robertson, Eileen, Wachsmuth, Nadine, Clark, Sally, McLean, Blake and Friedmann-Bette, Birgit. (2013) Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092840
Short-term hematological effects upon completion of a four-week simulated altitude camp
Pottgiesser,Torben, Garvican, Laura A., Martin, David T., Featonby, Jesse M., Gore, Christopher J. and Schumacher, Yorck O.. (2012) Short-term hematological effects upon completion of a four-week simulated altitude camp. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 7(1), pp. 79-83. https://doi.org/10.1123/Ijspp.7.1.79
The contribution of haemoglobin mass to increases in cycling performance induced by simulated LHTL
Garvican, Laura A., Pottgiesser, Torben, Martin, David T., Schumacher, Yorck Olaf, Barras, Martin and Gore, Christopher J.. (2011) The contribution of haemoglobin mass to increases in cycling performance induced by simulated LHTL. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 111(6), pp. 1089-1101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1732-z
Standardising analysis of carbon monoxide rebreathing for application in anti-doping
Alexander, Anthony C., Garvican, Laura A., Burge, Caroline M., Clark, Sally A., Plowman, James S. and Gore, Christopher J.. (2011) Standardising analysis of carbon monoxide rebreathing for application in anti-doping. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 14(2), pp. 100-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2010.07.007
Quality control technique to reduce the variability of longitudinal measurement of hemoglobin mass
Gough, C. E., Sharpe, K., Ashenden, M. J., Anson, J. M., Saunders, P. U., Garvican, L. A., Bonetti, D. L., Gore, C. J. and Prommer, N.. (2011) Quality control technique to reduce the variability of longitudinal measurement of hemoglobin mass. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 21(6), pp. e365-e371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01316.x
Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling
Cox, Geoffrey, Clark, Sally, Cox, A, Halson, Shona, Hargreaves, M, Hawley, John, Jeacocke, N, Snow, Rod, Yeo, W and Burke, Louise. (2010) Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology. 109(1), pp. 126 - 134. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2009
Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury
Ross, M, Halson, Shona, Suzuki, K, Garnham, A, Hawley, John, Cameron-Smith, David and Peake, J. (2010) Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. 30(5), pp. 329 - 337. https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.2009.0079