Cold water immersion attenuates anabolic signaling and skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, but not strength gain, following whole-body resistance training

Journal article


Fyfe, Jackson J., Broatch, James R., Trewin, Adam J., Hanson, Erik D., Argus, Christos K., Garnham, Andrew P., Halson, Shona L., Polman, Remco C., Bishop, David J. and Petersen, Aaron C.. (2019). Cold water immersion attenuates anabolic signaling and skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, but not strength gain, following whole-body resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 127(5), pp. 1403-1418. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00127.2019
AuthorsFyfe, Jackson J., Broatch, James R., Trewin, Adam J., Hanson, Erik D., Argus, Christos K., Garnham, Andrew P., Halson, Shona L., Polman, Remco C., Bishop, David J. and Petersen, Aaron C.
Abstract

We determined the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) on long-term adaptations and post-exercise molecular responses in skeletal muscle before and after resistance training. Sixteen men (22.9 ± 4.6 y; 85.1 ± 17.9 kg; mean ± SD) performed resistance training (3 day/wk) for 7 wk, with each session followed by either CWI [15 min at 10°C, CWI (COLD) group, n = 8] or passive recovery (15 min at 23°C, control group, n = 8). Exercise performance [one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press and bench press, countermovement jump, squat jump, and ballistic push-up], body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), and post-exercise (i.e., +1 and +48 h) molecular responses were assessed before and after training. Improvements in 1-RM leg press were similar between groups [130 ± 69 kg, pooled effect size (ES): 1.53 ± 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.49], whereas increases in type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area were attenuated with CWI (−1,959 ± 1,675 µM2 ; ES: −1.37 ± 0.99). Post-exercise mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling (rps6 phosphorylation) was blunted for COLD at post-training (POST) +1 h (−0.4-fold, ES: −0.69 ± 0.86) and POST +48 h (−0.2-fold, ES: −1.33 ± 0.82), whereas basal protein degradation markers (FOX-O1 protein content) were increased (1.3-fold, ES: 2.17 ± 2.22). Training-induced increases in heat shock protein (HSP) 27 protein content were attenuated for COLD (−0.8-fold, ES: −0.94 ± 0.82), which also reduced total HSP72 protein content (−0.7-fold, ES: −0.79 ± 0.57). CWI blunted resistance training-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy, but not maximal strength, potentially via reduced skeletal muscle protein anabolism and increased catabolism. Post-exercise CWI should therefore be avoided if muscle hypertrophy is desired.

NEW & NOTEWORTHY: This study adds to existing evidence that post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates muscle fiber growth with resistance training, which is potentially mediated by attenuated post-exercise increases in markers of skeletal muscle anabolism coupled with increased catabolism and suggests that blunted muscle fiber growth with cold water immersion does not necessarily translate to impaired strength development.

Keywordsadaptation; anabolism; catabolism; cold water immersion; resistance training
Year2019
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Journal citation127 (5), pp. 1403-1418
PublisherNLM (Medline)
ISSN1522-1601
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00127.2019
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85074743076
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1403-1418
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Print01 Nov 2019
Online09 Nov 2019
Publication process dates
Accepted10 Sep 2019
Deposited20 May 2021
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Argus, Christos K., Broatch, James R., Petersen, Aaron C., Polman, Remco, Bishop, David J. and Halson, Shona. (2017). Cold-water immersion and contrast water therapy: No improvement of short-term recovery after resistance training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(7), pp. 886 - 892. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0127
Striated muscle activator of rho signalling (STARS) is reduced in ageing human skeletal muscle and targeted by mir-628-5p
Russell, Andrew, Wallace, M. A., Kalanon, M., Zacharewicz, Evelyn, Gatta, P. A.D., Garnham, Andrew and Lamon, Séverine. (2017). Striated muscle activator of rho signalling (STARS) is reduced in ageing human skeletal muscle and targeted by mir-628-5p. Acta Physiologica. 220(2), pp. 263 - 274. https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.12819
Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games
Drew, Michael, Vlahovich, Nicole, Hughes, David, Appaneal, Renee, Burke, Louise, Lundy, Bronwen, Rogers, Margot, Toomey, Mary, Watts, David, Lovell, Gregory, Praet, Stephan F. E., Halson, Shona, Colbey, Candice, Manzanero, Silvia, Welvaert, Marijke, West, NIcholas P., Pyne, David and Waddington, Gordon. (2017). Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 52(1), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098208
Actin alpha cardiac muscle 1 gene expression is upregulated in the skeletal muscle of men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer
Cheung, Ada S., Rooy, Casey D., Levinger, Itamar, Rana, Kesha, Clarke, Michele V., How, Jackie M., Garnham, Andrew, McLean, Catriona, Zajac, J. D., Davey, Rachel A. and Grossmann, M.. (2017). Actin alpha cardiac muscle 1 gene expression is upregulated in the skeletal muscle of men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 174, pp. 56 - 64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.07.029
Protein ingestion before sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial
Kouw, Imre W.K., Holwerda, Andrew M., Trommelen, Jorn, Kramer, Irene Fleur, Bastiaanse, Jacqueline, Halson, Shona, Wodzig, Will K.W.H., Verdijk, Lex B. and Van Loon, Luc. (2017). Protein ingestion before sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Nutrition. 147(12), pp. 2252 - 2261. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.117.254532
The effect of acute and short term glucocorticoid administration on exercise capacity and metabolism
Tacey, Alexander, Parker, Lewan, Garnham, Andrew, Brennan-Speranza, Tara C. and Levinger, Itamar. (2017). The effect of acute and short term glucocorticoid administration on exercise capacity and metabolism. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(6), pp. 543 - 548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.10.016
Software thresholds alter the bias of actigraphy for monitoring sleep in team-sport athletes
Fuller, Kate L., Juliff, Laura E., Gore, Christopher J., Peiffer, Jeremiah John and Halson, Shona. (2017). Software thresholds alter the bias of actigraphy for monitoring sleep in team-sport athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(8), pp. 756 - 760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.021
Influence of recovery strategies upon performance and perceptions following fatiguing exercise: A randomized controlled trial
Crowther, Fiona, Sealey, Rebecca, Crowe, Melissa, Edwards, Andrew and Halson, Shona. (2017). Influence of recovery strategies upon performance and perceptions following fatiguing exercise: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 9(1), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-017-0087-8
Atraumatic tears of the ligamentum teres are more frequent in professional ballet dancers than a sporting population
Mayes, Susan, Ferris, April-Rose, Smith, Peter, Garnham, Andrew and Cook, Jill. (2016). Atraumatic tears of the ligamentum teres are more frequent in professional ballet dancers than a sporting population. Skeletal Radiology. 45(7), pp. 959 - 967. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00256-016-2379-6
A single dose of prednisolone as a modulator of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and insulin sensitivity post-exercise in healthy young men: A study protocol
Levinger, Itamar, Brennan-Speranza, Tara C., Stepto, Nigel K., Jerums, George, Parker, Lewan, McConell, Glenn K., Anderson, Mitchell, Garnham, Andrew, Hare, David L., Ebeling, Peter R. and Seeman, Ego. (2016). A single dose of prednisolone as a modulator of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and insulin sensitivity post-exercise in healthy young men: A study protocol. JMIR Research Protocols. 5(2), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.5119
The chronotype of elite athletes
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, G. D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, C.. (2016). The chronotype of elite athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics. 54(1), pp. 219 - 225. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2016-0049
Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes
Mayes, Susan, Ferris, April-Rose, Smith, Peter, Garnham, Andrew and Cook, Jill. (2016). Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes. Clinical Rheumatology. 35(12), pp. 3037 - 3043. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-016-3389-4
No effect of acute beetroot juice ingestion on oxygen consumption, glucose kinetics, or skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in males
Betteridge, Scott, Bescós, Raúl, Martorell, Miquel, Pons, Antoni, Garnham, Andrew, Stathis, Christos C. and Mcconell, Glenn. (2016). No effect of acute beetroot juice ingestion on oxygen consumption, glucose kinetics, or skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in males. Journal of Applied Physiology. 120(4), pp. 391 - 398. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00658.2015
Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists
Martin, Kristy, Staiano, Walter, Menaspà, Paolo, Hennessey, Tom, Marcora, Samuele, Keegan, Richard J., Thompson, Kevin G., Martin, David, Halson, Shona and Rattray, Ben. (2016). Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists. PLoS ONE. 11(7), pp. 1 - 15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159907
Muscle atrophy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Roles of inflammatory pathways, physical activity and exercise
Perry, Ben D., Caldow, Marissa K., Brennan-Speranza, Tara C., Sbaraglia, Melissa, Jerums, George, Garnham, Andrew, Wong, Chiew, Levinger, Pazit, ul Haq, Muhammad Asrar, Hare, David L., Price, S. Russ and Levinger, Itamar. (2016). Muscle atrophy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Roles of inflammatory pathways, physical activity and exercise. Exercise Immunology Review. 22, pp. 94 - 108.
Importance of standardized DXA protocol for assessing physique changes in athletes
Nana, Alisa, Slater, Gary J., Hopkins, Will, Halson, Shona, Martin, D. T., West, N. P. and Burke, Louise Mary. (2016). Importance of standardized DXA protocol for assessing physique changes in athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 26(3), pp. 259 - 267. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0111
Similar prevalence of acetabular labral tear in professional ballet dancers and sporting participants
Mayes, Susan, Ferris, April-Rose, Smith, Peter W. F., Garnham, Andrew and Cook, Jill. (2016). Similar prevalence of acetabular labral tear in professional ballet dancers and sporting participants. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 26(4), pp. 307 - 313. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000257
Erythropoietin does not enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis following exercise in young and older adults
Lamon, Séverine, Zacharewicz, Evelyn, Arentson-Lantz, Emily, Della Gatta, Paul A., Ghobrial, Lobna, Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico, Garnham, Andrew, Paddon-Jones, Douglas and Russell, Aaron P.. (2016). Erythropoietin does not enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis following exercise in young and older adults. Frontiers in Physiology. 7, pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00292
The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists
Michelle Lastella, Gregory D Roach, Shona Halson, David Martin, Nicholas P West and Charli Sargent. (2015). The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 55(12), pp. 1555-1564.
Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions
Juliff, Laura E., Halson, Shona and Peiffer, Jeremiah John. (2015). Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 18(1), pp. 13 - 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.02.007
Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, Gregory D., Halson, Shona, Martin, David T., West, Nicholas P. and Sargent, Charli. (2015). Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(3), pp. 293 - 299. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.942690
Confounding compression: The effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing
Brophy-Williams, Ned, Driller, Matthew W., Shing, C., Fell, James W. and Halson, Shona. (2015). Confounding compression: The effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(13), pp. 1403 - 1410. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.990489
Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players
Nédélec, Mathieu, Halson, Shona, Delecroix, Barthélémy, Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset, Ahmaidi, S. and Dupont, Gregory. (2015). Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players. Sports Medicine. 45(11), pp. 1547 - 1559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0377-9
Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: A critical review of the literature
Nédélec, Mathieu, Halson, Shona, Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset, Ahmaidi, S. and Dupont, Gregory. (2015). Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: A critical review of the literature. Sports Medicine. 45(10), pp. 1387 - 1400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0358-z
The effects of knee injury on skeletal muscle function, Na+-ATPase content, and isoform abundance
Perry, Ben D., Levinger, P, Morris, Hayden G., Petersen, Aaron C., Garnham, Andrew, Levinger, Itamar and McKenna, Michael J.. (2015). The effects of knee injury on skeletal muscle function, Na+-ATPase content, and isoform abundance. Physiological Reports. 3(2), pp. 1 - 14. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12294
Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, Gregory D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, Charli. (2015). Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports. European Journal of Sport Science. 15(2), pp. 94 - 100. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.932016
Influence of contrast shower and water immersion on recovery in elite netballers
Juliff, Laura E., Halson, Shona, Bonetti, Darrell L., Versey, Nathan, Driller, Matthew W. and Peiffer, Jeremiah John. (2014). Influence of contrast shower and water immersion on recovery in elite netballers. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 28(8), pp. 2353 - 2358. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000417
Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes
Halson, Shona. (2014). Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Medicine. 44(Suppl 2), pp. 139 - 147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0253-z
Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists?
Halson, Shona, Bartram, Jason C., West, Nicholas P., Stephens, Jessica M., Argus, Christos K., Driller, Matthew W., Sargent, Charli, Lastella, Michelle, Hopkins, Will G. and Martin, David T.. (2014). Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 46(8), pp. 1631 - 1639. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000268
Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers
Sargent, Charli, Halson, Shona and Roach, Gregory D.. (2014). Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers. European Journal of Sport Science. 14(Supplement 1), pp. 310 - 315. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2012.696711
Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep
Halson, Shona. (2014). Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Medicine. 44(Supplement 1), pp. 13 - 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0147-0
Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study
Robey, Elisa, Dawson, Brian, Halson, Shona, Gregson, Warren, Goodman, Carmel and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2014). Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study. European Journal of Sport Science. 14(5), pp. 410 - 417. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.843024
Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression clothing
Brophy-Williams, Ned, Driller, Matthew, Halson, Shona, Fell, James W. and Shing, C.. (2014). Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression clothing. Sports Engineering. 17(1), pp. 55 - 60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-013-0125-z
Identification of MicroRNAs linked to regulators of muscle protein synthesis and regeneration in young and old skeletal muscle
Zacharewicz, Evelyn, Della Gatta, P. A., Reynolds, John, Garnham, Andrew, Crowley, Tamsyn, Russell, Andrew and Lamon, Séverine. (2014). Identification of MicroRNAs linked to regulators of muscle protein synthesis and regeneration in young and old skeletal muscle. PLoS ONE. 9(12), pp. 1 - 25. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114009
Ageing has no effect on the regulation of the ubiquitin proteasome-related genes and proteins following resistance exercise
Stefanetti, Renae J., Zacharewicz, Evelyn, Della Gatta, Paul A., Garnham, Andrew, Russell, Aaron P. and Lamon, Séverine. (2014). Ageing has no effect on the regulation of the ubiquitin proteasome-related genes and proteins following resistance exercise. Frontiers in Physiology. 5, pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2014.00030
Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists
Hoon, Matthew, Hopkins, William, Jones, Andrew, Martin, David, Halson, Shona, West, Nicholas, Johnson, Nathan and Burke, Louise. (2014). Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 39(9), pp. 1043 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0574
Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly
Della Gatta, Paul A., Garnham, Andrew P., Peake, Jonathan M. and Cameron-Smith, David. (2014). Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 39, pp. 80 - 86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2014.01.006
Reliability of a 2-bout exercise test on a wattbike cycle ergometer
Driller, Matthew W., Argus, Christos K., Bartram, Jason C., Bonaventura, Jacinta, Martin, David T., West, Nicholas P. and Halson, Shona. (2014). Reliability of a 2-bout exercise test on a wattbike cycle ergometer. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(2), pp. 340 - 345. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2013-0103
Effect of exercise on the skeletal muscle proteome in patients with type 2 diabetes
Hussey, Sophie E., Sharoff, Carrie G., Garnham, Andrew, Yi, Zhengping, Bowen, Benjamin P., Mandarino, Lawrence J. and Hargreaves, Mark. (2013). Effect of exercise on the skeletal muscle proteome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 45(6), pp. 1069 - 1076. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182814917
Preexercise aminoacidemia and muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise
Burke, Louise, Hawley, John, Ross, M, Moore, Daniel, Phillips, S, Slater, G, Stellingwerff, T, Tipton, K, Garnham, A and Coffey, Vernon. (2012). Preexercise aminoacidemia and muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 44(10), pp. 1968 - 1977. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31825d28fa
Early inflammatory and myogenic responses to resistance exercise in the elderly
Mathers, Jessica L., Farnfield, Michelle M., Garnham, Andrew P., Caldow, Marissa K., Cameron-Smith, David and Peake, Jonathan M.. (2012). Early inflammatory and myogenic responses to resistance exercise in the elderly. Muscle & Nerve. 46(3), pp. 407 - 412. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.23317
Evaluation of the MAIIA dipstick test to detect recombinant human erythropoietin in plasma
Ashenden, Michael, Sharpe, Ken, Garnham, Andrew and Gore, Christopher J.. (2012). Evaluation of the MAIIA dipstick test to detect recombinant human erythropoietin in plasma. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 67-68, pp. 123 - 128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2012.04.025
Activation of mTOR signalling in young and old human skeletal muscle in response to combined resistance exercise and whey protein ingestion
Farnfield, Michelle M., Breen, Leigh, Carey, Kate A., Garnham, Andrew and Cameron-Smith, David. (2012). Activation of mTOR signalling in young and old human skeletal muscle in response to combined resistance exercise and whey protein ingestion. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 37(1), pp. 21 - 30. https://doi.org/10.1139/H11-132
Low muscle glycogen concentration does not suppress the anabolic response to resistance exercise
Camera, Donny, West, D, Burd, N, Phillips, S, Garnham, A, Hawley, John and Coffey, Vernon. (2012). Low muscle glycogen concentration does not suppress the anabolic response to resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 113(2), pp. 206 - 214. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00395.2012
Nutrient provision increases signalling and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle after repeated sprints
Coffey, Vernon, Moore, Daniel, Burd, N, Rerecich, T, Stellingwerff, T, Garnham, A, Phillips, S and Hawley, John. (2011). Nutrient provision increases signalling and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle after repeated sprints. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 111(7), pp. 1473 - 1483. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1768-0
Impact of resistance exercise training on interleukin-6 and JAK/STAT in young men
Trenerry, Marissa K., Della Gatta, Paul A., Larsen, Amy E., Garnham, Andrew P. and Cameron-Smith, David. (2011). Impact of resistance exercise training on interleukin-6 and JAK/STAT in young men. Muscle & Nerve. 43(3), pp. 385 - 392. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.21875
Impact of resistance exercise training on interleukin-6 and JAK/STAT in young men
Trenerry, Melissa K., Della Gatta, Paul A., Larson, Amy E. and Garnham, Andrew P.. (2011). Impact of resistance exercise training on interleukin-6 and JAK/STAT in young men. Muscle & Nerve. 43(3), pp. 385 - 392. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.21875
Vitamin D status and musculoskeletal health in adolescent male ballet dancers a pilot study
Ducher, Gaele, Kukuljan, Sonja, Hill, B., Garnham, Andrew P., Nowson, Carol A., Kimlin, M. G. and Cook, Jill. (2011). Vitamin D status and musculoskeletal health in adolescent male ballet dancers a pilot study. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science. 15(3), pp. 99 - 107.
Current markers of the Athlete Blood Passport do not flag microdose EPO doping
Ashenden, Michael, Gough, Clare E., Garnham, Andrew, Gore, Christopher J. and Sharpe, Ken. (2011). Current markers of the Athlete Blood Passport do not flag microdose EPO doping. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 111(9), pp. 2307 - 2314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-1867-6
Exercise training increases adipose tissue GLUT4 expression in patients with type 2 diabetes
Hussey, Sophie E., McGee, S. L., Garnham, Andrew, Wentworth, John M., Jeukendrup, A. E. and Hargreaves, M.. (2011). Exercise training increases adipose tissue GLUT4 expression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 13(10), pp. 959 - 962. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01426.x
Acute signalling responses to intense endurance training commenced with low or normal muscle glycogen : Experimental Physiology-Research Paper
Yeo, W, McGee, S, Carey, A, Paton, C, Garnham, A, Hargreaves, M and Hawley, John. (2010). Acute signalling responses to intense endurance training commenced with low or normal muscle glycogen : Experimental Physiology-Research Paper. Experimental Physiology. 95(2), pp. 351 - 358. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2009.049353
Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling
Cox, Geoffrey, Clark, Sally, Cox, A, Halson, Shona, Hargreaves, M, Hawley, John, Jeacocke, N, Snow, Rod, Yeo, W and Burke, Louise. (2010). Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology. 109(1), pp. 126 - 134. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2009
Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury
Ross, M, Halson, Shona, Suzuki, K, Garnham, A, Hawley, John, Cameron-Smith, David and Peake, J. (2010). Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. 30(5), pp. 329 - 337. https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.2009.0079
Effect of consecutive repeated sprint and resistance exercise bouts on acute adaptive responses in human skeletal muscle
Coffey, Vernon Glenn, Jemiolo, Bozena, Edge, Johann, Garnham, Andrew P., Trappe, Scott W. and Hawley, John Alan. (2009). Effect of consecutive repeated sprint and resistance exercise bouts on acute adaptive responses in human skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 297(5), pp. 1441 - 1451. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00351.2009
Consecutive bouts of diverse contractile activity alter acute responses in human skeletal muscle
Coffey, Vernon Glenn, Pilegaard, Henriette, Garnham, Andrew P., O'Brien, Brendan J. and Hawley, John Alan. (2009). Consecutive bouts of diverse contractile activity alter acute responses in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology. 106(4), pp. 1187 - 1197. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.91221.2008
Skeletal muscle adaptation and performance responses to once a day versus twice every second day endurance training regimens
Yeo, Wee Kian, Paton, Carl D., Garnham, Andrew P., Burke, Louise M., Carey, Andrew L. and Hawley, John Alan. (2008). Skeletal muscle adaptation and performance responses to once a day versus twice every second day endurance training regimens. Journal of Applied Physiology. 105(5), pp. 1462 - 1470. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.90882.2008
Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate restoration increases AMPK activity in skeletal muscle from trained humans
Yeo, Wee Kian, Lessard, Sarah J., Chen, Zhi-Ping, Garnham, Andrew P., Burke, Louise, Rivas, Donato A., Kemp, Bruce Ernest and Hawley, John Alan. (2008). Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate restoration increases AMPK activity in skeletal muscle from trained humans. Journal of Applied Physiology. 105(5), pp. 1519 - 1526. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.90540.2008